The Approach to Resolve Contradictory Prophetic Traditions

 Hafiz Firdaus Abdullah.

PART TWO:

 

20 Examples of ‘Contradictory’ Traditions and Explanations Resolving Them

1 : 2 : 3 : 4 : 5 : 6 : 7 : 8 : 9 : 10 : 11 : 12 : 13 : 14 :15 : 16 : 17 : 18 : 19 : 20

 

 

 

Example no: 1 - Advocation of virtuous thought among the people.

Hadith A: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

Keep yourselves away from ill thoughts, for ill thoughts make the worst lies. And don’t look for others’ fault, nor spy on each other, nor hate one another, nor turn away from one another. Be you bondsmen of Allah who are all related.[1]

 

Hadith B: It is narrated that Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam has said:

One who thinks good of other people will have many regrets.[2]

 

These two narrations will obviously appear contradictory. The former promotes a practice, i.e. good thoughts, while the latter discourages it, maintaining that it brings regret to one’s self. In a twist of words, it seems that Hadith B actually encourages ill thoughts to prevail within the community.

However, there is a big difference it their authenticity. The former is rated sound, as accorded by both Bukhari and Muslim, while the latter has two unknown narrators in its chain of narrators. Unknown in their honesty, credibility, and whether or not their narrations are acceptable. Therefore we do not accept the latter, let alone having it challenging the former.

In this first example we ought to learn an essential point; when two traditions of different level of authenticity oppose each other, the opposition is resolved by acknowledging the more authentic over the other.

Differences in authenticity account for one of the factors that make the Prophet’s (PBUH) traditions inconsistent. For this reason the first step to be taken upon encountering such situation it to check its status and authenticity. If the case is between the stronger (sound, good) and the weaker (daif, fabricated), it is resolved by discarding the latter.

 

Additional explanation:

The message in Hadith A is in line with what the following verse in the Qur’an maintained:

O you who believe! Avoid much suspicion, indeed some suspicions are sins.

And spy not, neither backbite one another.

 Would one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother?

 You would hate it (so hate backbiting). And fear Allah. Verily,

Allah is the One Who accepts repentance, Most Merciful.

[al-Hujurat 49:12]

 

Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala said: O you who believe! Avoid much suspicion Clearly it is an injunction ordering the believers to avoid having ill thoughts or evil assumptions on one another- and to think good about others. Even if there are obvious deficiencies and weaknesses in any person’s actions, as brethrens in faith we are still encouraged to seek the truth, in order that we truly grasp the hidden meanings and covert lessons behind what happened.

Narrated from commander of the faithful, Umar al-Khattab radiallahu ‘anhu: Do not have suspicions on the words uttered by your believing brethrens but with noble suspicion, so long that there are means, to the very least, to give it a righteous meaning.[3]

Muhammad bin Sirin rahimahullah[4] narrated: When news about your brother reaches you, find reasons to validate his acts. If you found none, then say: “perhaps he has his own reasons”.[5]

Narrated from Abu Qilabah rahimahullah[6]: When detestable news about your brother reaches you, by all means find a reason to approve his actions. If you don’t find any, tell yourselves: “perhaps he has his own rationale to which I’m unaware of”.[7]

The preceding paragraphs depict the true way for a believer to behave towards another. This is far from the idea brought by Hadith B, though unfortunately this is what many Muslims commonly practice to date. The time has come for us to change. By all means make suspicions history and uphold good thinking.

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Example no: 2 - Supererogatory fasting after 15 Sya’ban.

Hadith A: A‘isyah radiallahu ‘anha said:

And I have not seen the prophet- peace be upon him- fasting a full month but in Ramadhan.

And I have not seen him fasting so much in a month (as he fasts in) Sya’ban.[8]

 

Hadith B: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

When (you are) in the middle of Sya’ban, do not fast.[9]

 

The two texts are clearly contradictory. Hadith A tells us that it was the Prophet’s (PBUH) practice to regularly fast in Sya’ban. In Hadith B, he himself forbids anyone from fasting in the second half of the same month.

However, Hadith A is graded sound while Hadith B is weak. As we have learnt earlier, the former outrules the latter.

There are various other ahadith supporting the fact that the Prophet (PBUH) fasted in Sya’ban, to the extent that he almost made it continuous with Ramadhan. Accordingly, this prophetic practice is very encouraged- hadith B is in no authority to ban Sya’ban’s fasting. Said al-Syaukani[10]: The majority of the scholars agreed that it is sunnah to fast in the days after nisfu (middle of) Sya’ban, because the hadith forbidding it is weak.[11]

 

Additional explanation:

We feel obliged to remind ourselves and the readers that fasting in Sya’ban is sunnah (recommended, attributed to the Prophet PBUH), while in Ramadhan, it is an obligation upon every able Muslim. A person who wishes to fast during the former must ensure that his health is not affected, lest it would render the obligatory fasts deficient.

Moreover, Ramadhan is sacred and preferred to Sya’ban. It is in fact our responsibility to keep our acts of worship consistent and prioritizing the priority, which is Ramadhan. It is wrong to start in Sya’ban with a mounting enthusiasm, but ends up with nothing of it to remain in Ramadhan. Hence is the endless daytime nap many people resorted to.

It is also worth reminding that, as we know very well, our passion changes in the course of time; being at times at its peak, and at the other at its lowest level. The fluctuation is not uncommon. Some even suggest the following: the higher our zeal is lifted, the lower it will fall. It might be of great benefit to give extra attention into this versatile matter. The optimal way is to have a moderate ardency, but wears not by time (istiqamah).

We would also like to add that there isn’t any one authentic hadith supporting fasting in Rajab. If we have heard of numerous ahadith promoting such observance, they are but ‘very weak’ or even ‘fabricated’, which are only suit to be avoided, if not trashed.[12]

We Muslims observe only practices that are authentically attributed to the Prophet (PBUH) through the sound ahadith. The ‘weak’ hadith, in instances to explain the virtues of a ritual, is allowed to be used only if it is supported by another hadith with the grade ‘sound’. It alone can never be used to establish a sunnah (practice of the Prophet).

Some people might have tried all of the authentic supererogatory acts, that they found nothing remaining to be added into their collection of rituals. To these people, our advice is that they traverse a new path by doing works for the benefit of the ummah. More often than not, people in this day and age prefer to worship God for their own good. The cohort who works for the ummah still makes the minority. Instead, the most popular worship among us is to do supererogatory prayers, voluntary fasts, performing lesser pilgrimage for the nth time and many other acts. To make the situation worse, there are even innovations that start practices unkown to the Prophet (PBUH). Only a handful of Muslims would want to stand for amar ma’ruf nahi mungkar, preaching, to be involved in charity works, being a volunteer in communal works et cetera. Unfortunately, this is why Islam was termed as ‘a religion of its own; cares not for others’.

Let’s change our ways and attitude in woshipping. We worship for the good of the whole ummah, on top of our own. Is it not true that a widely beneficial work is better rewarded and longer lasting?

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Example no: 3 - Ruling of major ablution after intercourse.

Hadith A: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

Verily the water is from the water.[13]

The first water is of ‘washing’, while the second is the semen. The hadith means Verily the washing become obligatory because of the semen ejaculated. This is but one example from the extensive Arabic literature (Badi’) known as Jinasut Tam – two same words carrying different meanings.

 

Hadith B: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

When one sits between the four limbs and their private parts touching,

washing becomes obligatory (ghusl). [14] 

‘Sitting in between four limbs’ is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.

 

The above narrations seem to be inconsistent. In Hadith A, washing is only made obligatory after ejaculation, but Hadith B makes it binding after an intercourse, whether or not semen is ejaculated. The apparent inconsistency can be nullified if we take into account the history and background of both narrations.

In truth, the former hadith originated in the early days of Islam as a leave for the then Muslims while the latter hadith is ascribed to a later time, when Muslims were accustomed with Islam and understood the various injunctions and their benefits. For this reason, the latter hadith abrogates the former. In his own words, Ubay bin Ka’ab radiallahu ‘anhu (a companion of the Prophet PBUH) acknowledged the abrogation:

 “Verily the water is from the water” was a leave, (an injunction) made lenient by the Prophet PBUH in the early days or in the beginning of Islam. Later he made washing obligatory after (sexual intercourse). [15]

This is known as “Nasikh and Mansukh”. Nasikh is the abrogating hadith while the abrogated is mansukh. The wisdom behind this is that Islam teaches its followers gradually, not hastily nor abruptly. Before an injunction was to be made, Islam takes into consideration the condition of its followers- especially in their aqidah, iman and taqwa; and their understandings of the purpose of syari’ah.

The early teachings of Islam concentrated on educating and preserving the Muslims’ aqidah, with an extent of leniency in the laws. Prohibition is mostly used in teaching the creed, while encouragement and deterrent (instead of commandment and prohibition) was preferred to teach the law. Later when their aqidah, faith, taqwa, and conviction grew impregnable, a new set of laws carrying the real purpose of shari’ah was sent down. This new set of laws (nasikh) abrogates their antecedence (mansukh).

For this reason one of the methods needs to be considered to resolve contradicting authentic narrations is to verify whether or not one of it abrogates the other.

Another important reminder will be that before any two narrations are resolved using this method, one needs to obtain an authentic proof supporting its abrogation. This proof can be taken from either the Prophet (PBUH) himself or the companions (as used above). In addition to that, the reasons behind the hadith’s origin (asbabul wurud) must be casted out of doubt. If a person is not careful in these dealings, he might build the risk of nullifying a sound syari’ah text which is still applicable.

There is a theory prevailing among some people claiming that the abrogating and abrogated ahadith is made known by taking into consideration their first transmitters. The first transmitter being a senior companion indicates the early origin of the hadith, as opposed to the junior companion indicating its later origin, perhaps towards the end of the Prophet’s (PBUH) lifetime.

Consequently, according to this theory, when two narrations are contradictory, the first transmitted from a senior companion and the second from a junior, it is simply concluded that the latter abrogates the former.

This method is not preferred nor does it appease us. It has come to our knowledge that the junior companions more often than not have learned many hadith (which they later transmitted) from their seniors. A perfect example is from the doings of ‘Abd Allah ibn Abbas and Abu Hurairah radiallahu ‘anhuma, the juniors, who diligently learnt from their seniors. It is therefore very likely that they themselves will transmit the same ahadith, aided by their own explanations, to eventually be mistaken as later ahadith¸ when in truth these ahadith originated much earlier.

Accordingly, as argued above we are in the opinion that the method is prone to mistakes. In truth, an abrogating or abrogated hadith must only be determined on the basis of any support from the Prophet (PBUH), his companions, and asbabul wurud. If these are not enough to distinguish between the abrogating and the abrogated, then al-Jam’u is preferred – compiling the ahadith or Tarjih - prioritizing and preferring one hadith over another in conflicting situations, based on factors that consolidate or undermine them. Both methods will be explained in the coming examples, so God had willed.

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Example no: 4 - Usage of charms and talismans.

Hadith A: Abu Khizamah reported from his father, that Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam was asked:

What do you think of the remedy we use for healing and the incantations we read and tools we use for protection – does it (do they) reject what is determined by Allah? The Prophet answered:

It is (they themselves are) the will of Allah. [16]

 

Hadith B: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

Verily incantations, charms and al-Tiwalah are (acts of) shirk.[17]

 

There are two contradictions between the two narrations –

First: Hadith A permits incantations while Hadith B prohibits it.

Second: Hadith A allows the use of charms for protection, while Hadith B clearly admonishes it.

The first contradiction is made to naught with the correct understanding that the former hadith only allows incantations void of words with the tinge of shirk.  Our reference is the following hadith from Auf bin Malik radiallahu ‘anhu:

We used to practice incantations during the Jahiliyyah. So we asked:

O Prophet of Allah, what do you think of this? He replied: Show me your incantations.

There is no harm in practicing incantations where there is no (words of) shirk.[18]

 

For the second ‘contradiction’, we have to first understand the meanings of al-Tuqatan, al-Tamaim dan al-Tiwalah. Al-Tuqatan things we use to for protection from enemy, when they are feared.[19] Al-Tamaim is the plural of Tamimah, i.e. something the Arabs sew and make their children wear in the neck for protection from ‘ain[20] or any disaster.[21] ‘Ain is an illness caused by the spell of a gaze, i.e a gaze that can potentially transmit dangerous diseases to any corresponding eyes.[22] At-Tiwalah is a practice used to attract a woman to her husband, e.g. magic.[23]

‘Tools we use for protection’, as termed in Hadith A carries a very wide definition, that it can be referring to swords, shields, and armours as commonly as it is understood as amulets and charms. On the contrary in Hadith B, the ‘protectors’ have been specified to namely amulets and charms. Amulet, in this context, is used for protection against unwanted circumstances e.g. illness, ghosts, unseen creatures etc.[24] On the other hand, charm is anything written on paper, cloth, parchments, or on ant-eater’s scales which are then worn,believing that they have the power to repel illness, harm and misfortune.[25]

Therefore, in the second ‘contradiction’ it is a clash between generality and specificity. A general statement (Lafaz Am) encompasses and includes a lot of things without having a predetermined boundary.[26] Conversely a specific statement (Lafaz Khas) is used when a definition is applied on limited objects.[27] When these two statements coincide, the latter works by excluding some objects pre-included by the generality of the former.

Using this method, the contradiction between the two narrations can be easily resolved and removed, with the understanding that any kind of protection is allowed and lawful except things which are characteristic of amulets and charms. As we have explained, the specific prohibition in Hadith B excludes what Hadith A has made lawful from its general statement.

The difference between the two protectors is evident. The first type (weapon and armory) incorporates one’s own effort and initiation, whereas the second type (amulet and charm) depends only in the powers of the unseen. Users of the second type can never claim to depend on Allah’s protection, nor are they seeking refuge in Him, since His help is obtained directly and not by means of any mediation. This practice is but unfounded and baseless, far from the right way to seek Allah’s help and protection.

In this example, we used al-Jam‘u to resolve the contradiction. al-Jam‘u is literally amassing and uniting various different matters. By shari’ah, al-Jam‘u is reconciling two seemingly inconsistent arguments with an explanation that resolves it altogether.[28]

Some ahadith may sometimes seem contradictory or inconsistent, but in reality they are not. Instead, the inconsistency comes only from one’s own weaknesses. Moreover, these ahadith are most of the time complementory, supporting each other. Each of them represents a part of the vast Islamic shari’ah.

Therefore, when confronting two or more contradictory ahadith, all other ahadith concerning the same matter should be studied- for surely, they are but complementary. The sentence structure of the texts must also be taken into account when reading the ahadith, lest the messages or hints are overlooked. The above example concerned Lafaz Am and Lafaz Khas, while the next (5th) will be between Lafaz Mutlaq and Lafaz Muqayyad, insya-Allah.

 

Additional explanation:

The usage and permissibility of amulets and charms, incantations and remedies are a common dispute among the masses these days. From the ahadith cited above, we can at least get a rough idea of the Islamic perspectives on these matters. We would like to grab the opportunity here to better conclude the discussion, by going over the matters on permissibility of [1] amulets and charms [2] incantations and [3] applying remedies against illnesses.

[1] Amulet and charms

Oneness of God, or tauhid, makes the principal and central creed in Islam. Practically, this tenet demands from a believer his full trust in Allah; that He alone- and nothing else- can repel evil and bring all kind of goodness. Everything under His control- in fact, every single thing we can or cannot name- brings no harm, evil, luck, misfortune, live or death but with Allah’s will and lease. He has said in the Qur’an:

And if Allah touches you with harm, none can remove it but He,

and if He touches you with good, then He is Able to do all things.

And He is the Irresistible, above His slaves, and He is the All-Wise, WellAcquainted with all things.

[al-An‘aam 6: 17-18]

 

And verily, if you ask them: "Who created the heavens and the earth?"

Surely, they will say: "Allah (has created them)." Say: "Tell me then, the things that you invoke besides Allah, if Allah intended some harm for me, could they remove His harm, or if He (Allah) intended some mercy for me, could they withhold His Mercy?" Say : "Sufficient for me is Allah; in Him those who trust

(i.e. believers) must put their trust."

[az-Zumar 39:38]

 

The belief in Oneness of God purifies a believer from dependence on other than Allah, or to ask help from other than Him. The Prophet (PBUH) was ever strict when seeing a person using amulets or charms. He would condemn the act before even asking about the person’s intention or the make up of the amulet (or charm).

According to a narration, once came 10 people to the Prophet (PBUH) to give their pledge of allegiance to him (embracing Islam). He accepted all of them, excluding one. When asked, the Prophet (PBUH) answered:

Indeed with him is tamimah (amulet and charm). The person then put his hand (into his pocket) and threw it (the charm). So the Prophet (PBUH) accepted (the pledge from) him and said:

Whosoever hangs (uses) amulets and charms has in effect made shirk.[29]

 

If amulets and charms bring anything to their users, they will only bring them failure. Our relation with Allah is without mediation- we pray but directly to Him. If a person uses a mediator, and because of that incurs His wrath, his supplications might be rejected. The Prophet (PBUH) once commented on the use of amulets and charms:

Whosoever hangs (uses) tamimah (amulet and charm), Allah will not fulfil for him (his needs).

And he who hangs (uses) a snail’s shell will not be eased by Allah.[30]

 

In another narration the Prophet (PBUH) saw a man wearing a wrist band, so he asked: What’s this?

The man answered: I seek refuge with it from al-Wahinah.[31]

Then the Prophet replied:

It will not add but weakness unto you. Throw it away from you,

for if death befalls you and you’re wearing it, you’ll be given to it (it’ll be your guardian).[32]

 

Its use is also forbidden on the animals, as reported from Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam:

Do not let- on the camel’s neck- necklace made of rope or of any sort, but (let it) be cut.[33]

 

Malik bin Anas said, that is (the necklace) to repel the disease of al-‘Ain.[34]

Some people permit using amulets and charms when they are from Qur’anic verses or words of remembrance of Allah. They use al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani’s[35] statement as a support:

These (the ahadith forbidding charms) are for hanged charms and the likes, that they are not made from (verses of) al-Qur’an. When a charm is made from zikrullah, there is no harm in it, for it is made as a tabarruk (blessing), seeking refuge with His names and remembrance of Him.[36]

Ibn Hajar so opined based on some ahadith about Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam who read incantations on himself and taught it to his family and companions. The incantations consist of verses of remembrance of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala.[37]

In our opinion, the safest option is to hinder amulet and charm, whether or not they are made of Allah’s words. The reasons for this are:

[1] The ahadith prohibiting amulets and charms are characteristically general, without taking into account its make up; of Allah’s word or not.

[2] The prophet (PBUH) exempted only incantations void of words tainted with shirk, e.g. al-Qur’an and zikrullah. However, the exemption includes not amulets and charms. It is common knowledge that the people back then were accustomed to using these; therefore it is only unthinkable that the Prophet (PBUH) was oblivious about the matter. If he had wanted to allow them as he has allowed incantations, he would have made it clear to us, and the pronouncement will reach us through authentic ahadith. Without this, it means by default that they are unlawful.

[3] Between incantations and the use of amulets and charms, there is an untolerable difference, even when both practices are based on Allah’s words. Incantations are a direct action of asking for His help, while amulets and charms are themselves intermediary between the supplicant and Allah. If one continues to argue that his helper is also Allah, then we ask- isn’t Allah’s help attained directly and without any mediation?

Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala said in the Qur’an:

And when My slaves ask you (O Muhammad SAW) concerning Me, then (answer them),

I am indeed near (to them by My Knowledge). I respond to the invocations of the supplicant

when he calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor). So let them obey Me and believe in Me,

so that they may be led aright. [al-Baqarah 2:186]

 

And your Lord said: "Invoke Me, (i.e. believe in My Oneness (Islamic Monotheism))

(and ask Me for anything) I will respond to your (invocation).” [al-Mu’min 40:60]

 

[4] A person using amulets and charms while claiming to receive Allah’s help will eventually fall into the doom of the charm’s ‘help’. He might be too used to putting it on that he’ll go helplessly anxious and disturbed if the charm is not there. On that day he will not traverse a path but faint-heartedly, nor will he act but flaccidly- full of worry and doubt of anything that might befall him on that day, the product of his own unguided imagination. This is what we mean by “will eventually fall into the doom of the charm’s ‘help’”. Ahmad bin Hanbal[38] was asked about the same matter, and his answer was: Its user will depend on it (eventually).[39]

[5] Even when we seek Allah’s help and protection by reading verses of the Qur’an and zikrullah, it is on the basis that we are seeking from Whom the verses are directing to, i.e. Allah. The practice of hanging these verses, as is done by a large number people, is unfounded. It brings nothing but abasement to the holy verses.

[6] Some people used a hadith to support its usage, that a companion by the name of ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Amru radiallahu ‘anhu tied some pieces of paper containing supplications and used it as a charm. Below is the hadith:

From ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Amru radiallahu ‘anhu, Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam taught them (or us companions) some verses (to be read) in fear, (i.e.):

“I seek refuge with Allah’s words that are perfectly safe from His wrath, and (from) the evil of his slaves, and from Satan’s temptation and (from) its presence with me.”

The narrator continued:

And ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Amr used to teach it (the supplication) to his thinking sons (having reaced puberty) while to those who haven’t, he wrote it and tied it on them. [40]

The above supplication from Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam is trusted, but the additional explanation from the narrator on ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Amru radiallahu ‘anhu’s act is weak, therefore can not be used as an argument, let alone in disputes differentiating shirk from tauhid. If we, for argument’s sake, consider the addition sound, it will still be rejected because of two reasons:

[6-A] It is only the practice of a single companion, on the basis that an exclusive practice of a single companion, when inconsistent with the Prophet’s, is always degraded to unacceptable.[41]

[6-B] When two texts are found opposing each other, one allowing and the other prohibiting, the prohibition is always preferred.

In a nutshell, we hold on to the opinion that amulets and charms are unlawful even if they are made of al-Qur’an or zikirullah. Allah knows best.[42]

 

[2] Incantations.

Incantations are allowed provided that they are not made of words of shirk, e.g. asking for help from a man (being alive or dead), a jin (being a Muslim or not), an idol, a non-living thing, etc.

These creatures whose help are sought upon are nothing more than Allah’s creation. Moreover, they themselves need and long for His help and protection. Allah said:

Say (O Muhammad SAW): "Call unto those besides Him whom you pretend (to be gods like angels,

Iesa (Jesus), Uzair (Ezra), etc.). They have neither the power to remove the adversity from you

nor even to shift it from you to another person."

Those whom they call upon (like Iesa (Jesus) son of Maryam (Mary), Uzair (Ezra), angel, etc.)

desire (for themselves) means of access to their Lord (Allah), as to which of them should be the nearest

and they (Iesa (Jesus), Uzair (Ezra), angels, etc.) hope for His Mercy and fear His Torment.

Verily, the Torment of your Lord is something to be afraid of! [al-Isra’ 17:56-57]

 

The same admonishment is accorded for seeking help from non-living things:

Do they attribute as partners to Allah those who created nothing but they themselves are created?  

No help can they give them, nor can they help themselves.

And if you call them to guidance, they follow you not. It is the same for you

whether you call them or you keep silent.

Verily, those whom you call upon besides Allah are slaves like you. So call upon them

and let them answer you if you are truthful. [al-A’raaf 7:191-194]

 

The verses should clearly tell us that anything being longed, relied, and called upon- anyting other than Allah alone- is powerless. In fact, both the seeker and the one being sought can avail not one another. Allah has said:

O mankind! A similitude has been coined, so listen to it (carefully):

Verily! Those on whom you call besides Allah, cannot create (even) a fly,

even though they combine together for the purpose.

 And if the fly snatched away a thing from them, they would have no power to release it from the fly.

So weak are (both) the seeker and the sought. [al-Hajj 22:73]

 

To call for jin’s help is also forbidden in Islam, even if the jin is a muslim. As Allah said in the Qur’an:

And on the Day when He will gather them (all) together (and say):

"O you assembly of jinns! Many did you mislead of men,"

And their Auliya (friends and helpers, etc.) amongst men will say:

"Our Lord! We benefited one from the other, but now we have reached our appointed term

which You did appoint for us."

He will say: "The Fire be your dwelling place, you will dwell therein forever, except as Allah may will.

Certainly your Lord is All Wise, All Knowing." [al-An‘aam 6:128]

 

Therefore, Islam forbids Muslims from asking help (with full dependence) from among the men, jins, and non-living things. As for incantations per se, the scholars have produced strict guidelines in practicing it.

 

al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani said: The scholars are in agreement in allowing incantations, so long that 3 conditions are observed:

[1] That it is made of Allah’s words, names, or His attributes.

[2] And (that it is) in Arabic or whatever that its meaning is known, if it is other (than Arabic).

[3] And with the belief that the incantations avail not its readers- instead Allah Ta‘ala alone helps His slaves.[43]

One of the conditions stipulated is to read such incantations in an understood language. Moreover, it needs more than surface understanding- that the grammar must also be mastered. This is so as to ensure that the words are pure from any tinge or elements or shirk. Ibn Taimiyah[44] wrote:

Indeed the idolaters are readers of magic spells, and al-Thalasim[45] and incantations imbibed with servitude to the jin. Generally what is in the hands of men; of magic spells, al-Thalasim and incantations, are those foreign to Arabic, with shirk intermingled in it.

This is why our scholars have forbid incomprehensible incantations, with the thought that it (contains) elements of shirk, even in situations where the reader is unaware of it.[46]

We would like to reiterate here, that we have to be cautious of such incantations and the words used in them. Most enchanters now do not read their incantations but very speedily, lest others would understand it word by word. It may as well sound a little Arabic or Qur’anic. In fact some enchanters start off with the familiar verses of Basmalah or al-Fatihah but proceeded with unintelligible words. This trick is not sufficient to make the whole reading permissible or free from shirk.

The best way to handle this matter is to ask the enchanter to read the incantations slow and steadily, so that everyone present can listen and understand them. If this is not fulfilled, the best resort is to avoid it, even when we sense no harm coming from it. This is so especially pertaining matters between tauhid and shirk, heaven and hell, as advised by the Prophet (PBUH):

Leave the dubious (and go) to things that aren’t dubious.[47]

 

The best and safest option is to practice incantations in the way of the Prophet (PBUH). Whatever comes from the Prophet (PBUH) comes from Allah, and whatever that comes from Allah is perfect and faultless. What more, it can be practiced by any individuals without needing to attend to an enchanter or the likes. These prophetic incantations are abundantly listed in many books that are easily available in the market.[48]

 

[3] Applying remedies against ilnesses.

Medication is allowed in Islam, indeed it is recommended. Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

Cure yourselves O’ slaves of Allah. Indeed Allah did not send an illness but sends He with it its cure,

except one illness, (and that is) old age.[49]

 

There is no limit as to what is allowed to be used as a remedy in a medication, as long as it is not from something already declared unlawful, nor it is obtained illicitly. Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

Verily Allah the Most High did not create a cure for you from things that He made unlawful to you.[50]

However, the scholars of fiqh have agreed that unlawful substances are allowed in desperation, when it is believed that there is no other means of curing the illness.[51]

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Example no: 5 - Degree of obedience towards rulers.

Hadith A: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

Whosever obeys me obeys Allah. And whosoever is disobedient to me, he indeed is disobedient to Allah. Whosoever obeys his ruler obeys me. And whosoever is disobedient to his ruler,

he in deed is disobedient to me.[52]

 

Hadith B: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

There is no obedience in rebelling Allah. Verily obedience is but in virtue.[53]

 

The above narrations might seem contradictory. The first orders undivided obedience to rulers but the second abhors it when concerning rebellion to Allah.

The seeming contradiction can be cleared and resolved when further scrutiny is applied. Hadith A is one without a limitation, but Hadith B imposes an exception.

Hadis A is known as having Lafaz Mutlaq, which refers to something contained in a category, without being limited by it.[54] Whereas hadith B is known as having Lafaz Muqayyad, which refers to a matter with its restrictions considered, or a word with its meaning specified.[55]

When these two (Lafaz Mutlaq and Lafaz Muqayyad) meet, the former must be interpreted under the guidance of the latter. This is so because lafaz Muqayyad carries the role to specify thus explain the guidance brought by a hadith with lafaz Mutlaq.

Sayfuddin al-Amidi[56] said: We do not know of any disagreement between the scholars in the permissibility of practicing lafaz mutlaq with its understanding derived from lafaz muqayyad. In fact, that is exactly how it should be done. Practicing lafaz muqayyad encompasses what lafaz mutlaq has brought, but the opposite doesn’t hold. Collating the two is essentially a must.[57]

Returning to the above ‘contradiction’, the meaning derived from the two texts is clear- Obey the rulers as long as they order not corruption, mischief, or rebellion to Allah. The limitation imposed by Hadith B better explains the message in Hadith A, in such a way that makes the two complementary.[58]

This is the correct message the Prophet (PBUH) wanted to pass when he relates about obedience to rulers, and associating it to obedience to himself and Allah. This is further emphasized in another hadith:

To listen and obey is only applicable when orders are not on (the grounds of) rebellion (to Allah).

When rebellion is ordered, there (should be) neither listening nor obeying (obedience).[59]

 

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Example no: 6 - Ruling on drinking while standing.

Hadith A: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

Do not drink anyone of you while standing. If one forgets, he should throw (the water) out.[60]

 

Hadith B:al-Nazzal rahimahullah said, ‘Ali radiallahu ‘anhu came to a door near an open field (around the Kufah mosque[61]) with (a glass of) water and drank it standing. Then ‘Ali said:

Verily a group of people abhors drinking while standing. And indeed, I saw the Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam did as what you see me doing (now).[62]

 

Hadith C:‘Abd Allah ibn Abbas radiallahu ‘anhu said:

I offered Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam the zam-zam drink, so he drank it while standing.[63]

 

In hadith A Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam clearly forbids drinking while standing, only to be ‘contradicted’ by hadith B and C, rather he himself drank standing. To some people, this is sheer contradiction.

However, further examination reveals to us that hadith A is the Prophet’s (PBUH) verbal order (sunnah Qauliyah) while the latter two is a narration of his own actions (sunnah Fi‘illiyah). When these two meet, the former is given priority in making the foundation for any ruling to be derived from them. The latter, on the other hand, helps explain the real meaning contained by the former, the hadith with sunnah Qauliyah.

Thus, referring to the above ‘contradiction’, hadith B and C better interpret the prohibition made known by hadith A. In other words, hadith A intends not to make stand-drinking unlawful, but simply disliked (makruh). The Prophet’s prohibition in this case is not an absolute prohibition, instead it indicates his subtle aversion towards it.[64] However, it is worth reminding that hadith A makes the main source from where any ruling is derived, which makes it very encouraged for us to avoid stand-drinking, except when circumstances are compelling.

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Example no: 7 - Family planning from Islamic perspectives.

Hadith A: Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri radiallahu ‘anhu said: We asked Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam concerning al-‘Azal. He answered:

Do whatever fits you, because Allah’s decree will still happen, and the child (fetus) is not made from every single drop of the liquid (semen).[65]

 

Hadith B: Judama binti Wahb radiallahu ‘anha said: A man asked Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam concerning ‘azal. He answered:

It is (similar to) a covert burying of child.[66]

 

With the former legalizing and the latter prohibiting the act, these prophetic traditions, to many people, seem contradictory. al-‘Azal is the act of withdrawing the penis from the vagina during an intercourse, lest the semen enters into the vagina[67]. In other words, it is a form of “family planning” in the Prophet’s (PBUH) era.

Both traditions being sunnah Qauliyah makes the matter more complicated. So how are they resolved?

One of the methods in applying al-Jam‘u on two contradictory narrations is to give takwil to one of them. Takwil, in shari’ah terms, means: Changing a literal meaning of a word (or phrase) into another (more practical), as long as the latter is in line with al-Qur’an and al-Sunnah.[68]   Takwil is also interpreted as: Understanding a word (or phrase) differently, in ways other than its literal meaning, so long that its (new given) meaning is still applicable.[69]

There are two general prerequisites in doing takwil:

[1] The word (or phrase) itself has to naturally have two interpretations; the common and less common.

[2] Changing a word’s (or phrase’s) meaning, from the common to the less common, must be supported. The support must be of nas, ijma’, qiyas or hikmah.[70]

Between the two, Hadith B meets the specifications in applying takwil. This is so because the phrase ……a covert burying of child…… has two meanings i.e. commonly; a concealed murder, or less commonly; an obstacle to generating new lives.[71]

Here are the supports of this takwil:

[1] Hadith A itself, where Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam clearly permits ‘azal. Other than that, there are several other ahadith, among them being from Jabir bin ‘Abd Allah radiallahu ‘anhu:

We practiced ‘azal when Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam was still alive. This reached to his knowledge and he did not forbid us (from doing so).[72]

 

[2] The Qur’an tells us that the semen goes through several stages before it is turned into a living being. Allah Azza wa Jalla said:

And indeed We created man (Adam) out of an extract of clay (water and earth).

Thereafter We made him (the offspring of Adam) as a Nutfah (mixed drops of the male

and female sexual discharge) (and lodged it) in a safe lodging (womb of the woman).

Then We made the Nutfah into a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood),

then We made the clot into a little lump of flesh, then We made out of that little lump of flesh bones,

then We clothed the bones with flesh, and then We brought it forth as another creation.

So blessed be Allah, the Best of creators. [al-Mu’minun 23: 12-14]

 

Hence, concerning semen that neither goes through any of these processes nor did it even enter the women’s vagina, can we still legitimately or rightly compare it to taking a life? The answer is clearly in the negative. In fact, the killing, as illustrated in the above hadith was meant to be understood as a hindrance to the birth of a new life. It is evidently different from killing a living being or creature.

Mujahid[73] narrated about them (he and his friends) once asking ‘Abd Allah ibn Abbas radiallahu ‘anhu concerning ‘azal. Ibn ‘Abbas then asked them to consult somebody else first, before listening to what he has to tell. Later, this same group of people returned to him with an answer; that ‘azal is a form of killing. Hearing that from them, Ibn ‘Abbas read some verses of the Qur’an:

And indeed We created man (Adam) out of an extract of clay (water and earth).

Thereafter We made him (the offspring of Adam) as a Nutfah (mixed drops of the male

and female sexual discharge) (and lodged it) in a safe lodging (womb of the woman).

Then We made the Nutfah into a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood), then We made the clot

into a little lump of flesh, then We made out of that little lump of flesh bones,

then We clothed the bones with flesh, and then We brought it forth as another creation.

So blessed be Allah, the Best of creators. [al-Mu’minun 23: 12-14]

 

Ibn ‘Abbas then added: How can it (‘azal) be rightly called burying (infants) alive, that it has not reached this stage?[74]

With these guidance and references, the less common meaning of the phrase a covert burying of child is preferred to the common. Above all, the conclusion brings to an end the contradiction between the two prophetic traditions. From these, in fact, we can deduce that ‘azal is makruh; it isn’t recommended, but is still permissible.[75]

 

Additional explanation:

Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

Marry you loving and fertile women, for indeed I’m proud of your large numbers (Muhammad’s ummah) as compared to other nations (ummah).[76]

 

This hadith has led many to believe that having more children is a sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH), which naturally puts family planning as something contrary or a hindrace to it.

In fact, the above-mentioned hadith is but one of the many thousands of the Prophet’s sunnah. It is not befitting for us Muslims to vigorously practice some sunnah while neglecting some others. The following prophetic traditions are also part of the Prophet’s sunnah:

The best of men is he who benefits (other) men.[77]

A strong believer is better and more beloved to Allah than a weak believer.[78]

 

The word strong use in this hadith is general, hence includes physical, personality, knowledge, insight and many other strengths. See also the similitude Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala has made in the following verse:

And Allah puts forward (another) example of two men, one of them dumb,

who has no power over anything (disbeliever), and he is a burden to his master,

whichever way he directs him, he brings no good.

 Is such a man equal to one (believer in the Islamic Monotheism) who commands justice,

and is himself on a Straight Path? [al-Nahl 16:76]

 

From the two prophetic traditions cited above, it is clear to us that, inclusive of his sunnah and example, is to develop a community of strong faith and conviction, immense taqwa, knowledgeable, vigorous and is able to benefit other people and to a larger extent, the whole world. It is far from the Prophet’s (PBUH) hope to see a family with many children, but the parents failing to educate and fertilize them with Islam, that these children grow to be adults with wavering faith, superficial taqwa, naïve and a burden to other people. In truth, the sunnah of having many children has to be balanced with a family’s capacity to nurture them all.

Other than that, the Prophet Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam exhorted us to bring up our family with goodness and virtue, while abstaining from iniquity and immorality. Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

Do not cause problem and don’t be a problem.[79]

That is; do not cause trouble to yourselves or other people.

A mother having medical problems which limit her potential of bearing children should not be forced to do so. In fact, it constitutes a sunnah to limit her pregnancy, lest it will burden her and deteriorate her health. In cases of financial restraint, family planning is also a sunnah, so that each member of the family can live with adequate basic needs (as detailed in example no. 11). If the relation between husband and wife is vulnerable and unstable, with a vague dim future, family planning will become a sunnah, lest the mere size would cause more harm than good.

Included in the Prophet’s sunnah in bringing up a large family is to ensure its capacity to provide adequate love, care and education. The sunnah demands that parents fulfil the responsibility given to them by Allah Azza wa Jalla, as explained by the following verse in the Qur’an:

O you who believe! Ward off from yourselves and your families a Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones, over which are (appointed) angels stern (and) severe, who disobey not, (from executing) the Commands they receive from Allah, but do that which they are commanded. [al-Tahrim 66:06]

 

Among his example and sunnah is also to be cautious of the trials and tribulations that might come with having a large family. For instance, parents might be driven away from their responsibilities toward Allah, the religion Islam, and the ummah. It is not rare to have in our community, parents who would give every attention, money, and effort to the upbringing of their children without wanting to share a fraction of these for the betterment of the ummah at large.  In worse cases, some misled people enjoy taking pride and boasting about their children; their numbers, quality, look, skin colour, and education. Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala reminds us on these matters when He said;

O you who believe! Verily, among your wives and your children there are enemies for you

(i.e. may stop you from the obedience of Allah), therefore beware of them!

But if you pardon (them) and overlook, and forgive (their faults), then verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving,

Most Merciful. Your wealth and your children are only a trial, whereas Allah!

With Him is a great reward (Paradise). [al-Taghabun 64:14-15]

 

These are amongst the many guidance explained by the Qur’an and Hadith in family planning, an issue which would normally show a degree of variance between individuals, families, communities, environment, and socio-economic being. Consequently, families of different sizes would sprout, but there is nothing in their sizes that would indicate one family as being better than another.

Most importantly, the way of the Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam can never be taken isolatedly. It deserves a comprehensive attention, as much and wide as one could give. Such practice, concerning family planning or other matters, is exactly what the Prophet will be proud of.

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Example no: 8 - Ruling on having statues at home.

Hadith A: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

Angles do not enter upon the presence of dogs and sculptures.[80]

 

Hadith B: A‘isyah radiallahu ‘anha recounted:

Indeed, I used to play with dolls in Rasulullah’s sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam presence.

When my friends came over (to play with me) they started to make their way back in fear of the Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam. So the Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam called upon them to (play with) me.[81]

 

According to the first hadith, angles will not enter the houses whereupon dogs or sculptures are in, hence making this action (keeping dogs or sculptures at home) reproachable by Islamic guidance. However, Hadith B gives the account of how the mother of believers, A‘isyah radiallahu ‘anha, used to play with dolls (a form of statue?) in her house. Interestingly, the Prophet was there but did not advice her against it, moreover, in a way encouraged it by inviting A‘isyah’s friends to play along with her. Should we call it a contradiction?

It doesn’t require a genius to notice that Hadith A referred specifically to sculptures, the word itself bearing the meaning of a statue made of carved materials like wood and stones. This is plainly different from dolls with which children play. On top of that, far from being statues of any form, dolls at that time were dominantly creatively made from sewn fabric.

Islam advices the believers against keeping statues or sculptures at home, since it could resemble the idols used by the disbelievers as intermediaries between them and God. One could argue that the item in question is not taken as god nor is it given any kind of divine treatment, but this doesn’t change the ordinance of Allah. It is important that we understand that on top of abhorring shirk (associations of gods other than Allah), Islam is also very rigorous in preventing it, and that is done by eliminating even the traces of shirk. The angels’ repugnance mentioned in this hadith is to be taken as a sign of Allah’s blessing and pleasure distancing from the house.

It has however been established that Islam permits children to own miniature sculptures and dolls to play with. These objects, which are used purely for children’s entertainment, rarely bring with it any elements of shirk.[82]

In the modern age, it is more difficult to distinguish between sculptures (al-Tamathil) which are allowed from those which are prohibited. Direct comparison of their make up might not be too useful, for many sculptures today are made of substances unaccustomed to the Prophet’s era. Some of these artworks, these days, are made of alloy, glass, or even fibre. Therefore, the best and safest way is taking precautionary steps against keeping these objects in our houses, offices, cars, or other places.

            So again, the seeming contradiction is resolved. This time, by elucidating on the forbidden object; working out its nature, concept and meaning to answer the question of what it exactly is. An in-depth and sincere examination on these sayings of the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) needs to be applied before their real meaning and purpose could be disclosed. Hereby is another example of similar nature.

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Example no: 9 - Priority of congregational prayer.

Hadith A: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

Prayer in congregation is 27 times preferred to praying alone.[83]

 

Hadith B: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wassalam said:

Prayer in congregation is 25 times preferred to praying alone.[84]

 

These two sound narrations both speak of congregational prayer’s virtue over praying alone, but with obvious discrepancy. How is this possible?

Simple; a close read on its original Arabic text will reveal its usage of the term darajah (en. merit, honour), and not reward or redemption. The word darajah is more accurately used to allow some degree of variance in the extent of its emphasis, to be dependant on the changing setting and atmosphere. The above narrations mean exactly this.

Although a congregational prayer is still and always the same congregational prayer, it can happen in some different circumstances, as named below:

[1] 27 darajah for a far-off congregation, but only 25 darajah when it is closer to one’s home.

[2] 27 darajah for a congregational prayer held in the mosque while at other places like musolla (prayer room), offices, and homes, they will be given 25 darajah.

[3] 27 darajah for those who arrive in the mosque early to prepare for the prayers, and the rest gets 25 darajah.

[4] 27 darajah for a large congregation, 25 darajah for a smaller one.

[5] 27 darajah for congregations in Subuh and Isya’ prayers, while for other prayers is 25 darajah.

[6] 27 darajah for reading aloud in prayers, and 25 darajah when the imam (leader) reads silently.

[7] 27 darajah when lead by a knowledgeable and eloquent imam, but only 25 darajah when the imam is not as so.[85]

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Example no: 10 - Intention on fasting.

Hadith A:

One who, before dawn, is not certain of fasting, there is no fasting for him (on that day).[86]

 

Hadith B: A‘isyah radiallahu ‘anha reported:

One day the Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam entered (into our house) and asked: “Do you have anything (to eat)?” I replied: “Nothing.” Upon that he said: “With that, I fast.”[87]

 

Hadith A tells us that it is obligatory for a man to make certain his intentions of fasting before dawn, lest his fast should be invalid. On the other hand, Hadith B describes how the Prophet himself did not do as such. He gathered his intention to fast only after having to know that there’s nothing to eat, and that it had already passed dawn. Potentially, the two narratives do not agree with each other.

However, in this case, as in the previous cases, there is no real contradiction once the contexts of the narratives are understood. Hadith A is in fact about fasting in the Holy month of Ramadan, in which case one has to make certain his intention to fast before the morrow’s dawn. Meanwhile what Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam did as told in the other hadith concerned only the voluntary and non-obligatory fasts. This is true because if we scrutinize the hadith, it will be clear to us that Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam entered into A’isyah’s house with the intention of eating, but could not find any food. Hence it was in the day that he started to fast. Furthermore, if the latter hadith describes a scene in Ramadan, there is no doubt that the Prophet will fast earlier on without asking for the availability of food in his house.[88]

A specific guidance is contained within Hadith B concerning voluntary fasts (Nawafil). It exemplifies how a man can start fasting at any time in the day without having to gather his intention before dawn. Having said that, of course, this is only true if until then he hasn’t consumed any food or drink.

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Example no: 11 - The best charity.

Hadith A:

Jabir bin ‘Abd Allah radiallahu ‘anhu said, we were in the presence of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam when a man came to him with an egg-sized gold. Then he said: “O’ Rasulullah, I got it off the goldmine;

take it as a charity, for I do not own anything but it.”

 

Rasulullah turned away from him, whence he came to his right and pleaded the same, (but) the Prophet turned away from him. He tried to approach him from the left but the Prophet (again) turned away from him. In desperation, he came from his back, and that prompted the Prophet to throw the lump of gold aside. If it was to land on the man’s foot, it surely would have hurt or injure him. Finally Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

A man comes to you with his wealth or as of such, and said he owns nothing of which he hasn’t spent for charity. Later he regrets doing it, and begs from others. Indeed charity is only on the excesses. Take your wealth from us, we have no need in it.[89]

 

Hadith B:

Umar al-Khattab radiallahu ‘anhu said, Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam advised us to spend in charity.

It went well with the wealth I had (at that time). I said: “If there is a day that I win over Abu Bakar

(in doing good), this will be it.” So I came to the Prophet with half of all my wealth, and he asked:

“What have you left for your family?” I replied: “A third of it.”

But Abu Bakar shortly came with all his wealth. The Prophet asked:

“O’ Abu Bakar, what have you left for your family?” Abu Bakar replied:

 “I’ve left for them Allah and His messenger.” Umar admitted:

“I’ll never -ever- win over Abu Bakar on anything.”[90]

 

These narrations, like the previous examples, seem to contradict each other. In the first hadith Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam refrained from accepting from a person who gives all of his wealth for charity, but in the latter hadith, he accepted the wealth donated by Abu Bakar, even when he has left nothing else for his family. Can this be explained?

Contradiction happens because Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam spoke to different people of different level of understanding and practice of religion. Amongst Rasulullah’s wisdom was that he has always taken into account to whom he speaks and from whom questions came. This sagacity makes him an estimable teacher who would benefit all layers of people, from the young to the old, man or woman, the smart or the less-witted, the new Muslims or those who’ve been Muslims for long.[91]

Observe this reply Rasulullah gave in the following hadith by ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Amr al-‘Ash radiallahu ‘anhu:

We were with the Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam when a young man came and asked:

“O’ Rasulullah, can I be involved with kissing (with my wife) while I’m fasting?”

Rasulullah replied: “No, don’t.”

Then came an old man, who asked: “(O’ Rasulullah), Can I kiss when I’m fasting?”

Upon that Rasulullah replied: “Yes, (you can).”

Then we (the companions) looked to each other, (wondering). The Prophet then said:

“I know that this is how you’ll react. Indeed a man of that age can control himself.” [92]

 

Coming back to the two narrations and their seeming contradiction as above, it will be resolved if they are appreciated as being directed to different individuals. In the first hadith, Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam refused to accept the man’s wealth because it was all he had; this being not in line with the basic principals of charity in Islam.

Islam maintains that one only gives in charity what he has in excess of his basic needs. Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala has said:

They ask you (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) concerning alcoholic drink and gambling.

Say: "In them is a great sin, and (some) benefit for men, but the sin of them is greater than their benefit." And they ask you what they ought to spend. Say: "That which is beyond your needs."

Thus Allâh makes clear to you His Laws in order that you may give thought. [al-Baqarah 2:219]

 

In one of his ahadith Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

The best of charity is with the excesses; and start with those under your responsibility

(parents, family, etc)[93]

 

A man’s basic needs are arguably different from one person to another. Moreover, the amount of charity one can give depends on his level of faith, taqwa, and the person’s willingness to sacrifice his wealth for the well-being of the religion, which largely varies across any one community. In fact, if today a man could give whatever he perceives as excesses to charity, he might not feel the same tomorrow, thus feeling sad and regrets his decision. This could well possibly happen with an ungripping hold to the faith, fluctuating taqwa, minimal readiness to sacrifice, or even some unexpected calamities that befall. He might end up begging in the streets, which is exactly what Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam wanted to avoid in the first hadith.

Meanwhile, as far as the second hadith is concerned, it was a senior companion who was giving in charity; a man who accompanied the Prophet in the hardest and easiest of times, saviour of Islam, who sacrifices himself and his wealth for Islam and its nation. It is no surprise that when Abu Bakar al-Siddiq radiallahu ‘anhu wanted to give all of his wealth in charity, the Prophet accepted it without any hesitation.

Al-Khitabi[94] wrote: From the hadith (Hadith A) it is learnt that it is for the man’s best interest to keep the wealth for his own use and to not give away all of it in any one occasion, lest he could be turned extremely poor, or that the grueling challenges that comes along with it becomes too unbearable for him to an extent that it will spark doubt and uncertainty within him. What was given can’t possibly be retained, but worse, in this case even the good deed is not counted, and eventually he will become a burden to others, (begging to quench his needs).

Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam did not do the same to Abu Bakar al-Siddiq radiallahu ‘anhu who gave all of his wealth in charity for he knows of the truthfulness of his intention and confidence and that the Prophet worries not of Abu Bakar as he was worried about the man whose (charitable) wealth was refused.[95]

Certainly Abu Bakar’s action did not go against the word of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala in the Qur’an, verse 219 of surah al-Baqarah, for Allah readily acknowledges any one abnegation that was done for Him, the religion, and its nation. Allah Azza wa Jalla indeed praised the Ansar for their unequalled hospitality towards the Muhajirin:

And (it is also for) those who, before them, had homes (in Al-Madinah) and had adopted the Faith,

love those who emigrate to them, and have no jealousy in their breasts for that which they have been given (from the booty of Banû An-Nadîr);

And give them (emigrants) preference over themselves even though they were in need of that.

And whosoever is saved from his own covetousness, such are they who will be the successful.

[al-Hasyr 59:09]

 

Additional explanation

Perhaps it will be of use if we, in this section, touch on the Islamic perspective of the ‘basic needs’ much mentioned above. The basic needs, as Islam defines it, are a certain amount of wealth that would fulfil the criteria below:

  1. Enough nutritious food, nothing less which could cause weakness and nothing more than this, lest it would encourage indolence or affect health.

  2. Access to water and other sanitary facilities to maintain personal cleanliness and hygiene.

  3. Possess decent clothing to conceal the private parts, cover the body, protects from cold or hot weather, and maintains modesty in front of other people. The clothing must not be too unsightly until it becomes displeasing to others, nor should it be too lavish lest it would spark excessive pride.

  4. A suitable home for accommodation, not too small until it disturbs privacy between and amongst adults and children, neither should it be too luxurious that it accommodates the devil and becomes a stage for self-pride.

  5. For marriage. Married men still need to sustain the family, ensuring the children’s growth and education.

  6. Seeking knowledge, a balance between religious and worldly.

  7. Buying medicine when in need.

  8. Embark on the obligatory Pilgrimage.

  9. As a saving for any unexpected calamity, if it so happens.[96]

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Example no: 12 - The allowed traveling period for women.

Hadith A:

It is not permitted for a woman who believes in Allah and the Day of Judgement to travel for a day and a night, unless if she’s with one of her mahram.[97]

 

Hadith B: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

A woman must not travel for more than 3 days, except with a mahram.[98]

 

Apparently, Hadith A allows a woman to travel alone for nothing more than a day and a night while Hadith B extends it to 3 days. Once more, this question has to be asked: why is this difference happening?

The answer is simple. As much as Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam pays particular concern to the person he speaks to, he is also very aware of the contemporary situation.

If other ahadith are been examined, it will be clear that the women at the time of the Prophet were free to roam within Madinah without their mahram, but those who want to travel must do so with a mahram. Therefore the obligation of taking a mahram stands on the safety factor.

It is now easy for us to understand that the difference in length of travel mentioned by Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam in the two narrations is related to each situation’s respective security. Hadith A came about at a time when the vicinities around Madinah weren’t safe or secured, which was why the women were allowed to travel alone only within Madinah. When, after a while, the situation changed to become more stable and safe, the limitation was extended to a 3 day’s journey, as we have learnt from Hadith B.

 

Additional explanation

When interacting with the sunnah (teachings and traditions) of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wassalam, it is very crucial for us to be able to recognize a number of things, namely:

  1. Whether or not the message of the hadith relies on its ‘illah (its content, reason for, and purpose of) thus when the ‘illah is taken away, effectively the hadith becomes inapplicable.

  2. Whether or not the content of the hadith is shaped purely based on ‘uruf (contemporary culture), which will most probably change with the change of place and time.

  3. Differentiate between what is general in a hadith, that applies to all mukallaf (one on whom a legislation is levied on), and what is specific to a certain community in certain circumstances.

  4. Differentiate Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wassalam’s statements as a head of a country from what he said as a messenger of Allah Azza wa Jalla.[99]

Hadith A and B in the above example are amongst the best ahadith that can be utilized to understand and appreciate the sunnah of the Prophet Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wassalam because it considers the ‘illah and situational factor. If we further examine the narrations we will undoubtedly see that its ‘illah is on the betterment of women, and avoidance of any unwanted, preventable incidents during their travels. This concept of ‘illah is unique in Islamic jurisprudence where if we look at the jurisprudence in its entirety, we will invariably come to the conclusion that its aim and objective is only for the betterment of the nation, on top of saving them from unprecedented catastrophies.

Ibn al-Qayyim said: Indeed the very foundations of jurisprudence are the wisdom and virtue for mankind in living their lives in this world and the inevitable next. The jurisprudence brings justice, mercy and uprightness to all in all aspects. Any matter that moves from justice to error, from mercy to inclemency, from uprightness to corruption, and from wisdom to devastation, cannot be considered as jurisprudence- not even through takwil (exegesis).[100]

As situations and surrounding circumstances change so do the legislations and codes of practice, while preserving its further reaching aims. This is true because the principle remains to be: laws and codes that are erected on the ground of some specific virtue will remain effective as long as it could achieve its targeted excellence, which makes the skeleton, and itself is a source of, the jurisprudence. Conversely if the sought-after rectitude ceases to exist, the interrelated laws have to change correspondingly, appropriate to the degree and intensity of the goal. More often than not, the existence of any code of practice cannot be separated from its ultimate reasons and aims.[101]

It is mainly for this reason that there are people among the mujtahid who readily allow women to travel without a mahram and even more than the three days limitation, as long as these women could ensure and guarantee their safety to be comparable to (the safety as when) traveling with a group of trustworthy people and its likes.[102]

There are many unwelcomed calamities that befall Muslims today because many people among us, some religious figures included, have not appreciated the exact and pure way to interact with Islamic jurisprudence, as is appropriate with the change of time and state of civilisation. We can roughly see that our nation is divided into two; the first consisting those who confine themselves to the superficial meaning of the jurisprudence while the second, at the other extreme, are those who free themselves from any influence from the jurisprudence at all. There is only a handful of us who managed to set a stage in the middle, not inclined to any of the two extremes, i.e. those who utilizes the jurisprudence as a manager and guide for achieving a higher purpose; embracing virtue and effacing degradation. May all of us be included in this middle group, if God so willed.[103]

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Example no: 13 - Prophet’s (PBUH) reminders in the last sermon.

Speech A: Jabir bin ‘Abd Allah radiallahu ‘anhu said, Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam gave a speech:

Verily I have left amongst all of you one thing with which if you hold on to,

you’ll never go astray– it is the Book of Allah (al-Qur’an).[104]

 

Speech B:‘Abd Allah ibn Abbas radiallahu ‘anhu said, Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam gave a speech:

I leave with you two things; never will you deviate if you hold on to them both–

he Book of Allah and the tradition of His prophet.[105]

Speech C: Zaid bin Arqam radiallahu ‘anhu said, Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam gave a speech:

 “Indeed I leave with you two heavy (important) things, the first being the Book of Allah (al-Qur’an) in which there is the (true) guidance and the (true) nur (light), so hold on to the Book of Allah.”

Zaid remarked: “He (Nabi) gave much emphasis and importance on the Book of Allah.”

Then the prophet continued: “and Ahli Baiti (my household). I remind you by Allah about my household.[106]

 

If prior to this we have expounded on ahadith that are deemed contradictory due to their difference in object of reference (as in example no. 10) and circumstantial difference (as in example no. 11), we are now moving on to elucidate on the apparent contradictions between ahadith containing both object and circumstantial difference at a time.

As we have seen, three of the speeches by Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam are presented above. They contain similar narrative but quite markedly different messages. In those speeches, Rasulullah has reminded his followers to:

[1] (Speech A) Hold on to al-Qur’an alone.

[2] (Speech B) Hold on to al-Qur’an and Sunnah (tradition).

[3] (Speech C) Hold on to al-Qur’an and members of his household.

These differences contained in the speeches by Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam could be instantaneously dissolved by establishing its audience and time when the speech took place. It is more so because Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam spent almost 30 days observing the Wida’ (last) Hajj,[107] and within that time frame he has given more than a dozen of speeches, teaching the large multitude about the rites of pilgrimage, its customs, conditions, practices and proscriptions. On top of that he gave as much speeches communicating advices, counsels, opinions and admonitions to the masses.[108]

It is worth clarifying that when the word khutbah (speech) is used, it is not confined to a particular situation and atmosphere where Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam stands on the minbar giving a formal speech to the populace before or after the congregational prayers, but khutbah (speech) is applicable to any situation when he spoke out, tought, gave brief advices and reminders to a number of people- at least a little bit larger than just any other crowds, and is independent of time. This type of khutbah can be conveyed when he was standing, sitting on the back of a camel or horse, on a boulder or on top of a small hill- by any possible means so that it was heard by the attendants in the gathering.

Speech A was delivered by Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam on the 9th of Zulhijjah at Arafah during the Last Hajj, as explained meticulously by Jabir bin ‘Abd Allah.[109] Speech B, according to al-Dhahabi’s arrangement,[110] was made by Rasulullah during or after the days of Tasyrik (11,12,13 Zulhijjah), after the third verse of the chapter al-Maidah was revealed. Speech C was given by Rasulullah on the way back from Makkah on the 18th of Zulhijjah at an Oasis in Khumm, popularly known as Ghadir Khumm.[111] This place is not very far from the vicinity of Jahfah; between Makkah and Medina.

The reason why there was contradictions, or more accurately difference, in the speeches of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam as detailed above is because they are never the same incident. Those speeches were delivered at different times and places.

Speech A was given by Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam at Arafah on the 9th of Zulhijjah, which, according to historians’ estimate, had around 140,000 listeners. During the time Rasulullah reminded them to be steadfast to the al-Qur’an and did not mention anything else, because he appreciated that a large majority of his audience was from every corner of the then Muslim world. They came in multitude after receiving invitations from Rasulullah himself, or after the news that Rasulullah is performing the Hajj reached them. They generally did not know Rasulullah, nor have they met him before, let alone appreciate and abide to the traditions of the Prophet. Had Rasulullah indiscreetly given the advice to hold firm to al-Qur’an and his Sunnah (tradition), a large number of people will start to be dazed, asking among themselves what was ‘sunnah’, and what he meant by that. It is therefore undoubtedly wise that the Prophet has chosen to advice them only on the Qur’an, a book they have already know, or at least heard of. From reading al-Qur’an they will still be able to appreciate and know the importance of the Sunnah, from which point they will endeavour to better understand and learn them, by means of referring to and learning from his companions.

Speech B was delivered by Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam when the Hajj was almost completed, if not duly accomplished. At that time, the multitude of his audience who were with him since at Arafah on the 9th of Zulhijjah, then spent the night in Mudzalifah, observed the korban (slaughtering) on the 10th of Zulhijjah, followed by spending three nights in Mina, have more or less begun to learn about him and better appreciate his actions and traditions, encompassing the Hajj rituals and his other acts of worship, including his rectitude, personality, modesty and the way he governed his daily life. It is therefore not surprising that at the same time a verse on the perfection of Islam as a religion endorsed, sanctioned and approved by Allah Tabaraka wa Ta‘ala was revealed:

This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you,

and have chosen for you Islâm as your religion. [al-Maidah 5:03]

 

Therefore, between Speech A and B, no real contradictions can surface. In fact, they complement each other. The urge to hold on to the Qur’an in no way means leaving the Sunnah because within the Qur’an itself there are explicit commands to embrace the Sunnah along with admonitions against leaving it. The best way to describe Speech B is that it explains and expounds on Speech A.

This difference (that of Speech A and B) contains within it invaluable lesson for men of learning. That is, when conveying the message to a certain people who hasn’t known Islam quite well, or has only started to learn about Islam, it should be done by using al-Qur’an. When the time that they have acquired the basics and foundations of Islam reaches, we can start going into the more specifics and the peripheries by using the examples of the traditions of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam. This is not unlike teaching a man to pray or observe the Hajj, where we will first refer to al-Qur’an as the very foundation in explaining its obligation and ordinance, and later the traditions are brought about to help explain the specific rules and rituals.

As for Speech C, it was delivered by Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam at Ghadir Khumm on the 18th of Zulhijjah, on his way back to Medina partly to solve a dispute between some companions and ‘Ali bin Abi Talib. Before the Hajj, Rasulullah had sent an envoy led by ‘‘Ali bin Abi Talib radiallahu ‘anhu to Yemen for religious matters. This same envoy has returned to Makkah and managed to catch up doing the Hajj with Rasulullah. Some people from the group have complained to the Prophet Rasulullah on some of ‘Ali’s decisions that they could not agree with.

A few days on, and the complaint had not ceased. On their way back to Medina however, Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam has taken some time to stop at Ghadir Khumm and talked to all of them to render invalid- thus resolve- the complaints about ‘Ali. He maintained that ‘Ali is part of his family (Ahli Bait) and deserves respect from everyone.[112] It has to be understood that Speech C did not mean to legislate the whole nation to obey and heed to ‘Ali bin Abi Talib as a legal jurisprudence, but serves only as a reminder that ‘Ali is special to Rasulullah until the end of time.

Hence is how we have shown the three seemingly contradictory speeches are resolved. They are only ‘inconsistent’ due to the different audience they attended to, in different situations and circumstances. This is but one of the wisdom given by Allah to His messenger Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam.

 

Additional explanation

To the Shi’ites, they have taken Speech C as their main reference and source of legislation, which are al-Qur’an and Ahli Bait. The largest sect in Shi’ism, Itsna Asyriyah Shi’ite (the 12 Imam Shi’ite) has taken the descendents of Hussain bin ‘Ali bin Abi Talib radiallahu ‘anhuma as their leaders, until the 11th imam, al-Hasan bin ‘Ali al-Askari (260H). They also believe that the 12th imam has vanished only to reappear at another time as the Mahdi. These imam and leaders they make as their point of reference to which they make their religion dependant.

According to Ahli Sunnah wal Jama‘ah, Ahli Bait cannot be made as a point of reference for making legislations in Islam. The reference Ahli Sunnah wal Jama‘ah use is the sacred Qur’an and authentic traditions of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wassalam. Ahli Sunnah wal Jama‘ah do not hold Ahli Bait as a source of jurisprudence because of some strong reasons as detailed below:

 

First:

There is no single verse in the Glorious Qur’an that specifically mentions Ahli Bait, let alone to make them the source or basis of legislations. There are however a few verses that have been extortionately been explained as referring to Ahli Bait by some Shi’ites. Obviously these exegeses, if they can be called one, are inaccurate and fall far from the original spirit of the verses.

 

Second:

For argument’s sake, if their explanations are true, they are but nothing more than that the verses emphasizing the importance of the family of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam, consistent with the message extracted from Speech C as discussed above. This by no means degrades the significance of other companions and the Muslim nation, because Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala has also blessed and consequently raised their status in the following verse:

And the foremost to embrace Islâm of the Muhâjirûn (those who migrated from Makkah to Al-Madinah)

and the Ansâr (the citizens of Al-Madinah who helped and gave aid to the Muhâjirûn)

and also those who followed them exactly (in Faith).

Allâh is well-pleased with them as they are well-pleased with Him.

He has prepared for them Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise), to dwell therein forever.

That is the supreme success. [al-Taubah 9:100]

 

You [true believers in Islâmic Monotheism, and real followers of Prophet Muhammad and his Sunnah]

are the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind; you enjoin Al-Ma‘rûf

(i.e. Islâmic Monotheism and all that Islâm has ordained) and forbid Al-Munkar

(polytheism, disbelief and all that Islâm has forbidden), and you believe in Allâh.

And had the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) believed, it would have been better for them; among them are some who have faith, but most of them are Al-Fâsiqûn

(disobedient to Allâh - and rebellious against Allâh’s Command). [‘‘Ali Imran 3:110]

 

Third:

Allah Azza wa Jalla in the Qur’an has repeatedly ordered mankind to unfailingly obey Him and His messenger, but mentioned nothing on Ahli Bait. From this it is very clear that undoubtedly only two things make the basis of Islamic legislation: Allah and Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wassalam. Allah said in the Qur’an:

The only saying of the faithful believers, when they are called to Allâh (His Words, the Qur’ân)

and His Messenger, to judge between them, is that they say: "We hear and we obey."

And such are the successful (who will live forever in Paradise). [al-Nur 24:51]

 

Obedience to Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wassalam is specifically enjoined by Allah Tabaraka wa Ta‘ala in the two following verses:

We sent no Messenger, but to be obeyed by Allâh’s Leave. If they (hypocrites),

when they had been unjust to themselves, had come to you (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم)

and begged Allâh’s Forgiveness, and the Messenger had begged forgiveness for them: i

ndeed, they would have found Allâh All-Forgiving (One Who forgives and accepts repentance), Most Merciful.

But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم)

judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions,

and accept (them) with full submission. [al-Nisaa’ 4:64-65]

 

Fourth:

Obedience to other man was ordained by Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala, as in the case of followers to leaders etc. Nonetheless the obedience is limited, that it has to only be on cases where obedience to Allah and His messenger is not violated. Ponder on Allah’s following words:

O you who believe! Obey Allâh and obey the Messenger (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم),

and those of you (Muslims) who are in authority. (And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves,

refer it to Allâh and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم), if you believe in Allâh and in the Last Day.

That is better and more suitable for final determination. [al-Nisaa’ 4:59]

 

If we carefully observe, the word “obey” are placed before “Allah” and “the Messenger” but this was not repeated with “Ulil Amri”. Arguably this indicates us that obeying Allah and His messenger is an unquestionable act, but as for “Ulil Amri”, it is limited and finite. Obedience to “Ulil Amri” is important and still much needed, so long that they do not go against Allah and Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wassalam.

Also look at the second part of the same verse where Allah Azza wa Jalla has indubiously stated that should the nations differ on anything, they have to return and refer to the al-Qur’an and al-Sunnah in finding and constructing a solution. There isn’t even the slightest hint here to endorse an “Ahli Bait” or “Imam” to have an authority on such issues.

 

Fifth:

A leader or an “Ulul Amri” can be anyone from amongst the whole world-wide Muslim nation; it is not exclusive for Ahli Bait. Let us together ponder on the words of Allah Ta‘ala as follows where a man who is promised to inherit the earth and lead the nation is mentioned in general terms. In other words it could be anyone that fulfils the criteria listed:

Allâh has promised those among you who believe and do righteous good deeds,

that He will certainly grant them succession to (the present rulers) in the land,

as He granted it to those before them;

And that He will grant them the authority to practise their religion which He has chosen for them (i.e. Islâm). And He will surely give them in exchange a safe security after their fear (provided) they (believers)

worship Me and do not associate anything (in worship) with Me. But whoever disbelieves after this,

they are the Fâsiqûn (rebellious, disobedient to Allâh). [al-Nur 24:55][113]

 

Sixth:

If all the 5 arguments laid above are based on al-Quran and Sunnah (naqli), we now make a turn to present some points that are based on logic (aqli). As we have already known, Speech C was delivered by Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wassalam in front of a very large audience, numbering tens of thousands. A question arises, that is if what Rasulullah meant was to make his family members as one of the references to the legislation apart from the Qur’an, why has no one understood it as so, except the Shi’ites, and that didn’t happen until later? Is it true that this understanding derived from the people who lived decades after that speech is better and more accurate than the understanding of multitude of people that heard the speech for themselves as it was delivered? Certainly not!

 

Seventh:

Among those who attended and listened to Speech C was ‘Ali bin Abi Talib and other members of the family of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wassalam, radiallahu ‘anhum. However, a much as we can gather about the account of their lives, there isn’t any valid and authentic evidence to say that they have ever claimed or asked to be made a source of the Islamic jurisprudence. In fact, they make a good example of a people who adheres strongly to the Qur’an and Sunnah. Or could it be that even these Ahli Bait have failed to correctly understand the Prophet’s speech as in Speech C or that they have ignored and neglected the responsibility, position and acknowledgement conferred to them? Once again, the answer to both questions is certainly no!

 

Eighth:

If it is true that the family members of the Prophet had the authority to mould the ligeslation of Islam, and that they should be refered to for its completion, the question will be: does this apply to the children too? We’re referring here to the 9th and 10th Imam, i.e. Muhammad bin ‘Ali bin Ja’far (al-Jawad) (220H) and ‘Ali bin Muhammad bin Ja’far (al-Hadi) (254H), rahimahullahu Ta‘ala. Both of these Imam al-Jawad and Imam al-Hadi held their positions as Imam when they were as young as 8 years old, after the demise of their fathers, who both died at an early age. Is it reasonable that children, who are still under the care of their wetnurses and teachers, be taken as a source of religious rulings?

 

Ninth:

If they claim that an Ahli Bait is an obligate source of Islamic legislation, how will they explain the situation where the whole nation have lost the twelfth imam since almost 1200 years ago? Could it be that, with the disappearance of the twelfth imam for this long, the laws of God is stopped and suspended as long, until the imam appears again as the Mahdi? Will the whole Islamic nation be in dire ignorance, without guidance, for as long as they’re waiting for this imam, simply because there is no imam that they could refer to and rely on?

To the Si‘ites of Itsna Asyriyah (the twelve imam), they have tried their very best to explain, support, and validate these absurdities. But to the people of Sunnah wal Jama‘ah, these are vain attempts. Because no matter how they do it, it will only strengthen their conviction and belief that Ahli Bait is not part of the source of Islamic legislation, jurisprudence, or rulings.

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Example no: 14 - Ruling on writing prophetic traditions.

Now we present another couple of prophetic traditions that seem to be contradictory, purely because they are directed towards different individuals in different situations. Also included among these narrations are weak ahadith (daif) as an exercise to readers. The recommended steps to be undertaken are: [1] Put aside the weak ahadith, [2] Identify the authentic ahadith and [3] Look for a resolution of the same understanding between these ahadith filtered in the second step.

 

Hadith A: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

Do not write (note) anything from me. Whoever has written (noted) anything from me besides the Qur’an,

he must to erase it. Communicate the ahadith from me, there will be no blame on you (for that).

And whoever creates a lie on me- Hamam said, “I think the Prophet said ‘intentionally’”

– he will reserve a sit in the Hellfire.[114]

 

Hadith B: Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri radiallahu ‘anhu said:

We sought the permission of the Messenger sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam to write but he declined t

o permit us doing so.[115]

 

Hadith C: Abu Hurairah radiallahu ‘anhu said:

Truly we did write the words we heard from the Messenger sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam.

One day he came to us and said: What are these writings? We replied: The words we heard from you. T

hen he said: Writings on the book of Allah (al-Qur’an)?

We answered: (yes!) these are what we heard (from you). So the Messenger sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

Write the book of Allah (al-Qur’an) and preserve its own original form.

Writings other than the book of Allah? Preserve its own original form

and do not contaminate (modify) it.[116]

 

Hadith D: Narrated from Muthalib bin Abdillah:

Once Zaid bin Thabit radiallahu ‘anhu visited Mu‘awiyah, then Zaid asked Mu‘awiyah concerning a hadith.

Then Mu‘awiyah asked his scribe to write down the hadith. Seeing this, Zaid retorted:

Verily Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam ordered us to not put down to writing anything from his hadith (words).

Therefore the written hadith from Mu‘awiyah was destroyed.[117]

 

Hadith E: When Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam took over the city of Makkah (Fath-ul-Makkah), he has given a speech to an audience. After his speech, a man from Yemen by the name Abu Shah stood up and said:

O’ Rasulullah, do write (the speech) for me. Rasulullah replied:

Write it for Abu Shah.[118]

 

Hadith F: ‘Abd Allah bin Amr radiallahu ‘anhu said:

It is not uncommon for me to put down to writing everything I heard f

rom Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam to help me memorise them. The people of Quraish stopped me, saying: Do you write everything? Is it not true that Rasulullah is a mere mortal that talks when he is angry or at ease? This made me stop writing temporarily until I met Rasulullah in person and consulted him about this matter. He signaled to his mouth and said:

Write! For the sake of He who holds my soul, nothing comes out of this mouth but the truth. [119]

 

Hadith G:  ‘Abd Allah ibn Abbas radiallahu ‘anhu said:

When Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam was in a bad state of health, he ordered:

Bring me a paper, I’ll write to you something that you will not go astray after it.

Umar al-Khattab said: Verily the Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam is in a bad state of health

and we already have the book of Allah (al-Qur’an) which is enough for us.

They (the companions) then disputed on this matter (to give or not to give the paper)

until that they made much noise. Rasulullah then said: Leave me alone,

you shouldn’t be disputing in front of me (like this). [120]

 

Hadith H: Narrated from Abu Hurairah radiallahu ‘anhu, he said:

A man from Ansar sat in the presence of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam,

he listened to the hadith from Rasulullah and was interested in it but did not get to memorize it.

He complained to Rasulullah: O’ Rasulullah, verily I heard this hadith from you and I’m pulled towards it

but I have failed to memorize it. So Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam replied:

Seek help from your right hand. And he gestured with his own right hand to signal writing. [121]

 

Hadith I: It is narrated that Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam has said:

Bind the knowledge. The companions asked: But how do we bind them? Rasulullah replied: With writing.[122]

 

Hadith J: Narrated from Rafi’ bin Khadji, he said:

O’ Rasulullah, we have heard many things (ahadith) from you.

Can we write them down? Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam replied:

Write, and it is not a fault.[123]

 

These 10 narrations as above are very well known in circles discussing the history of writing and preserving the traditions of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam in books. The Hadith A, B and C inform us of the impermissibility of noting and writing down the words of Rasulullah but the rest, Hadith E, F, G, H, I and J endorse these traditions to be written. Please note that Hadith D is not taken into account here due to its weak status.

The narrations that account for the prohibition of writing down the ahadith are actually being directed to individuals writing them on the same sheet as al-Qur’an was written. When Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam taught al-Qur’an to the companions at that time, he will read out 10 verses followed by exegeses, explanations, and some guidance on putting them into practice. He will not simply continue to the next 10 verses before he is satisfied with their understandings of the verses taught on a particular session.[124] The Prophet’s companions, at times when paper was scanty, has written the explanations given by Rasulullah together with the verses he read from the Qur’an, on the very same paper. This is what actually was forbidden by Rasulullah because the practice can potentially mix the verses of the holy Qur’an with his words and teachings.[125]  Take a second and closer look at his words: Write the book of Allah (al-Qur’an) and preserve its own original form. Writings other than the book of Allah? Preserve its own original form and do not contaminate (modify) it.

Hadith B is narrated by Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri too, as is Hadith A. The prohibition demonstrated in Hadith B is because of the same reason, as we have explained in the above paragraph; it is neither definite nor independent of circumstances. Among the arguments for this is a narration from Abu Sa‘id himself, where he himself has written down the reading of tasyahud in the prayer, as taught by Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam. On this, Abi al-Mutawakkali al-Naji said:

We asked Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri radiallahu ‘anhu about the reading of Tasyahud, then he read it to us and said: Verily we do not write anything down but al-Qur’an and (the reading of) Tasyahud.[126]

If the traditions of the Prophet is to be written separately from the writings of al-Qur’an, it is allowed and permitted by Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam as has been made clear from the Hadith E, F, G, H and J. To write or not to write lies completely on each of the companion’s decision, as maintained by Abu Hurairah radiallahu ‘anhu:

Not a single man amongst the companions of the Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam narrates more ahadith than I do except ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Amr al-Ash, he puts it down to writing, while I don’t.[127] There are numerous other ahadith witnessing the companions’ zeal in writing, so is the case for not writing.[128] To those who have superb memory, they kept away from writing because it can impair and diminish their memory. Meanwhile to those who haven’t had excellent memory, they opted to write the ahadith. These are all purely based on each individual’s own choice, not because of some prohibition or forbiddance in doing so.

Thus is one of the best examples on how to resolve a seemingly stark contradiction found between ahadith by way of [1] brushing away the weak ahadith, [2] concentrating on the strongly established ahadith regarding the same matter and [3] searching for a common meaning based on a deep understanding and extent research on the meaning of each hadith from an individual’s point of view, and the atmosphere it happened in.

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Example no: 15 - On pointing the index finger during tasyahhud.

Hadith A: ‘Abd Allah bin Jubair radiallahu ‘anhu said:

Verily the Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam, when he makes his prayer (tasyahud),

he signaled with his finger and did not move it.[129]

 

Hadith B:Wail bin Hujur radiallahu ‘anhu said:

“I will show to you how Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam prayed.” (Then he demostrated):

Then he sat (tasyahud), resting on his left leg while putting his left hand (palm facing down)

on his left hip and knee. Then he slightly raised his right elbow on his right hip. Then he folded his two fingers (the ring and little finger) and with his thumb, making a circle (with the middle finger).

Then he lifted his (index) finger and I saw him moving it and made supplication with it.[130]

 

Hadith A and B explain the etiquette of a man sitting in his last tasyahud in the prayers. Between Hadith A and B again there seems to be a contradiction, Hadith A depicts that when making the supplications in tasyahud, Rasulullah salallahu-alaihi-wasallam pointed with his index finger without moving it around. Hadith B, however, tells us that he moved his index finger continuously throughout the tasyahud. So what is our approach to resolve this contradiction?

As explained in the first chapters of this book, sometimes two narrations will appear to be contradictory but in reality, this is not the case; they are only different even though they are placed in the same chapter and discussion. Therefore, actually both narrations can be applied at the same time. The first example for this case are the Hadith A and B as above, both of them are authentic and each of them explains one of the legitimate prayer conduct, as recognized by the jurisprudence. In one of his famous ahadith Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

Pray as you see me praying.[131]

 

In another narration Abu Humaid radiallahu ‘anhu said: “I’m the most knowledgeable among you on how Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam prayed.” (Then he explained):

Verily Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam sat – that is in his tasyahud– then he folded his left leg and positioned the front of his right leg facing the qiblah. He put his right palm on his right knee and his left palm on his left knee. And he signaled with his finger, that is his index finger.[132]

 

Similar hadith, with the addition“signaled with his index finger” is also narrated from some other companions. The word signaled in the methods of Arabic language effectively means stagnancy. Because the ahadith that contains the idea “didn’t move his finger” exceed (in number) those that contain “moved his finger”, then it can be said that Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam do not usually move his fineger in tasyahud except in some cases.

Based on these arguments, a Muslim could practice both the examples from Hadith A and B, i.e. without moving the finger or to move it continuously. In most of the prayers he did not move his finger, however in some prayers he moved it. Both are righteous and acceptable traditions on how the Prophet himself observed the conduct of prayers.[133]

 

Additional Explanation I

There are some important points to be discussed as an extension of this chapter:

 

First:

The act of signalling with the index finger, whether or not it is moved, is not done without any purpose. Lifting up a finger is to symbolize our recognition of the oneness of Allah Azza wa Jalla. Narrated by Khifaf bin Ima’ bin Ruhdhah al-Ghiffari radiallahu ‘anhu: Verily Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam when he sat at the end of the prayer (the sitting of tasyahud), he pointed with his index finger. So the idolaters accused him (the Prophet) reading incantations and spells. Indeed they lied. In truth (what Rasulullah did) was declaring the oneness (of Allah).[134]

 

Second:

The precise method of moving the finger could be found from the text of the hadith, which is up and downwards. Therefore it is not by moving it in a circular pattern or any other random movements. It is definitely not a movement as if the name of Allah (alif lam lam ha) is written by the finger’s tip, or Muhammad (mim ha mim dal) or certain sheikh and respected scholars as done by some tariqat.

 

Third:

Lifting the index finger at the time of mentioning “IllaLlah” in the syahadah as part of tasyahud is not founded on the Qur’an or from Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam, his companions and followers radiallahu ‘anhum. (See Additional Explanation II)

 

Fourth:

To continuously move the index finger during tasyahud is not makruh (despisable), neither can it be taken as an act that invalidates the prayer because it in itself is an authentic practice of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam.

Some are in the opinion that moving the finger more than 3 times will invalidate the prayer. This is similarly not true. The limitation to 3 movements is the opinion of some scholars in their endeavour to maintain the discipline of prayer from some needless actions or movements. If the movement is founded from the tradition of Rasulullah or for some other valid reasons, it does not make the prayer void, neither does it degrade it.[135]

 

Additional Explanation II

It is generally said that according to the Shafi‘i school of thought, a man, in his tasyahud must lift a finger upon mentioning “IllaLlah” in the prayer’s shahadah. Is this really true?

Our research has found that the lifting of index finger upon the mention of “illaLlah” only started to be known among the followers of Syafi‘I after the fifth century of hijri year.[136] Before that, the position on this case, as opted by the scholars of Shafi‘i school of thought, resembles the guidance we learn from Hadith A, i.e. the finger is lifted and made to stay at that position during the whole tasyahud.

According to Muhammad bin Idris al-Shafi‘i (204H), the index finger is lifted and maintained in that position from the beginning right through the end of tasyahud. It was never mentioned that the index finger is to be lifted upon the mention of “illaLlah”.[137]

After him, al-Baihaqi (458H)[138], a renowned scholar of Shafi‘I school of thought, in his book Sunan al-Kubra, has arranged a number of special chapters to compile the Prophetic ahadith and companions’ atsar concerning the position of index finger during tasyahud. Not one of them support the above claim. Moreover al-Baihaqi made a conclusion: It is recognized (ihtimal) that the meaning of moving the finger is to signal (once) with it, and not moving it endlessly. Therefore the hadith of Wail (Hadith B) is not inconsistent at all, and (in fact) is perfectly in line with the hadith of Ibn Zubair (Hadith A).[139] It is clear that to al-Baihaqi, the better of the two opinions is to not move the index finger (continuous and randomly).

This same matter is further emphasized by al-Baihaqi in another book he wrote, entitled Ma’refat al-Sunan wa al-Atsar, a compilation of ahadith on the matters of jurisprudence (Qadim and Jadid) referred by al- Shafi‘i, where he has listed several ahadith to support the opinion in Shafi‘i school of thought that the index finger is lifted and maintained from the beginning to the end of tasyahud. It was not even scarcely mentioned, in the form of hadith or companions’ atsar or the opinion of al-Shafi‘i, that the index finger is only raised upon mentioning “illaLlah”.[140]

So is the opinion of al-Syairazi (476H)[141] in his book al-Muhazzab.[142]

Meanwhile, al-Mawardi (450H)[143], another renowned scholar from Shafi’i school of thought in the 5th century of Hijrah, when explaining the book Mukhtasar al-Muzani produced by one of the respected students of al-Shafi‘i[144], has cited two opinions from the circle of Shafi‘iyyah scholars at that time on the subject of the position of index finger during Tasyahud:

First: To signal with the index finger while continuously moving it from the beginning to the end of tasyahud,

Second: To signal with the index finger from the beginning to the end of tasyahud without moving it.

 

It was never mentioned, whether in the form of hadith or the companions’ atsar or the opinions of scholars of al-Shafi‘i or other students of this school of thought, that the index finger is only raised upon the mention of “illaLlah”.[145]

There are two figures of the past that have given some arguments in support of raising the index finger only when “illaLlah” is mentioned. Let us carefully analyze the arguments proposed by both of them:

 

First: al-Baghawi (561H)[146] in his book Syarah al-Sunnah, mentions: Verily what was chosen and decided from the scholars from amongst the companions and followers and learned men after them is to signal the right index finger upon the tahlil (La ila ha illaLlah), its beginning is upon mentioning illaLlah.[147]

 

Analysis: We say, this statement is still wanting of Prophetic argument approved by a sound chain because it is clear that al-Baghawi only mentions this without presenting with it any chain or even ascribe it to any of the earlier scholars. The book Syarh al-Sunnah that he wrote is a book of hadith, so it is very dubious and disputable when he doesn’t lay forward any hadith or the companions’ atsar to support his statement. Moreover, it is to be reminded that the separation between al-Baghawi and the generation of the followers is nothing short of 400 years.

 

Second: al-San‘ani (1182H)[148] in his book Subul al-Salam, said: And the point and time of signaling is when the mention of “La ila ha illaLlah” is made, this certainty is made based on the hadith narrated by al-Baihaqi which discussed the action of Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam. [149]

 

Analyis: This narration, according to al-Mubarakfuri (1353H)[150] in his work Tuhfah al-Ahwazi: And what that has been narrated by al-Baihaqi from the action of the Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam, it is unknown of (its origin), and it is never mentioned by any of the companions (and it is also not known) about its chain and not (known either) its text. And (therefore) Allah Ta‘ala (alone) is (better) knowledgeable on (the real status regarding) this matter.[151]

Thereby is completed our brief analyses on both arguments.

 

From the above arguments and research, it can be conveniently said that the Shafi‘i school of thought before the year 500 hijrah opined that the position of the index finger in tasyahud is raised and maintained as such from the beginning to the end of tasyahud, and not changed or further raised upon the mention of “illaLlah”. As of raising it upon its mentioning, no valid argument can be found. It is best for us to withhold from doing so until worthy arguments are found in support of such act. Meanwhile, we should adhere to and practice on what is acquired authentically from Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wassalam, i.e. moving or not moving the index finger right through the length of tasyahud.

 

Additional Explanation III

This subject is deliberately debated to this length to instil the awareness in our readers on one important thing, that is we have to act based on knowledge, not mere tradition. Moreover, when we see a man beside us doing something different from what we use to do, we have to inquire, why is it different? What is he based on, and what are we based on?

We are confident that many among us have seen someone continuously moving his index finger in tasyahud, while some others raise and maintain it all along tasyahud. What is our reaction? Normally we would discard it saying “Ahh ! That’s from a different school of thought”. Worse are some people’s actions that are judgemental towards these people, stereotyping them with ill-thoughts. It is actually being judgemental that is the worst.

These derived from the extremism some people have towards an opinion or a group, or the attitude of believing only themselves to have wisdom or to be in the path of truth. We must be cautious of this, and keep this despicable behaviour a good distance away from us.

It has to be emphasized here that it is not about the position of the index finger that matters most, but our approach and attitude when being confronted with ikhtilaf, i.e. difference in opinion. We have to always ask and assess the very conduct that we often practise– are they based on the authentic tradition of Rasulullah or not? On the other hand, upon seeing someone doing something different from what we normally would, ask ourselves– does he have his arguments too? If it is supported by arguments it is advisable that we compare it to our own practices. If the other person’s action is better indispensable, the time to amend and improve our own has come. If instead it was found that he erred, it will become our responsibility to advise him. However if both hold the truth, then it is up to each of you to decide according to your own understanding and research, while being tolerant to each other.

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Example no: 16 - Rituals during prostration (in prayers).

Hadith A: Upon prostration, Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam read:

Glorified be my Lord, the Most High.[152]

 

Hadith B: Upon prostration, Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam read:

Glorified be Thee (O’ Allah) and all praises to Thee, there is no god but Thee.[153]

 

These two narrations concern the zikr (words of rememberance of God) read by Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam when prostrating in the prayers. Both the readings in the above example seem to be different or in other words inconsistent, but as we are convinced now, it definitely isn’t so. They are different, but not inconsistent let alone contradicting each other. Both the narrations show nothing but the existence of a wide selection of zikr readings when doing the prostration. Undoubtedly both of them are equally advisable.

The same goes to the various ahadith on the readings of iftitah (the opening of the prayer), the reading from the chapters of al-Qur’an after al-Fatiha, rememberance in bowing, i’tidal (the standing up after bowing), sitting between two prostrations and the sitting of tasyahud. There definitely exist a number of forms of readings, zikr and supplication practiced by Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam, all of them collectively prove that it could be chosen and practiced by the ummah as they like, without binding and limiting themselves to any one reading only.

Among the wisdom and advantage of having several different readings, zikr and supplications in the prayers (besides the chapter al-Fatiha) is for a person to have a wide selection to chose from that which fits him most in the prayers depending on some external factors or even his own choice and will. For example when he performs the supererogatory or optional prayers, he could read the readings, zikr and supplication which are shorter, when he leads the prayer, he reads what is moderate in length lest it would burden the followers and in his night prayers, he reads what is longer. The choice of readings, zikr and supplication also allows a person some degree of flexibility in each of his prayers, the effect of which would make the prayers seem different from each other, or more importantly they are “new and afresh”.

Being able to choose from a range of readings, zikir and supplication would also help a person to concentrate better in his prayers. Is it not true that if we pray with one reading all the time it would make us take it as a norm that thus not paying as much concentration as we used to on the words that we utter? At the same time our hearts and minds would take this opportunity to escape our body. We encourage the readers to try memorizing and practising these two readings of zikr (Hadith A and B) in their prayers from this moment on. We deliberately chose these two readings as example because they are somewhat different from what is normally read in Malaysia. We’re pretty sure that the readers will be able to concentrate and feel better when prostrating due to the extra and special attention given unto it, be it from the aspect of reading or understanding.

Having said that, we still need to be cautious and meticulous to choose the readings, zikr and supplications making sure that they are authentically from Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam, before it can be practiced in our prayers. It is not our right to change or add any readings or zikr at our own whims, except in the case of supplicating to Allah Azza wa Jalla in the prostration and after the reading of tasyahud, before giving the end salam.[154]

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Example no : 17 - Who should best benefit from charity?

Hadith A: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

It is not permissible to give in charity to the wealthy, neither to an abled and normal person

(healthy and strong).[155]

 

Hadith B: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

Each beggar has his right, even if he comes on a horseback.[156]

 

Above is another example of two seemingly contradictory prophetic traditions. Hadith A prohibits donation or charity to people possessing wealth or equipped with physical ability. Meanwhile Hadith B encourages and wants us to entertain each and every beggar, even if he owns a ‘luxurious car’. Hadith B opposes Hadith A because essentially a beggar who owns a good car is among the group of wealthy and most probably is physically-abled.

As you might have learnt by now, there isn’t any inconsistency in these two narrations, in fact they complement each other when we have really understood the meaning and purpose of each hadith.

Islam basically dislikes the action of asking and begging for money if it is done by the abled-ones. Islam demands that they work as hard as they can, and then be grateful with what they are bestowed from it even if it is a type of occupation look-downed or despised by other people. What matters is that it is acknowledged and blessed by Allah Tabaraka wa Ta‘ala. This is indeed undoubtedly better and more dignified from asking from others. Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam affirmed this:

Verily a man amongst you who takes the rope, then he goes with tying (and carrying) firewood on his back and sell them, consequently Allah saved his face, verily that is better for him from begging and asking from other people, whether or not he is given (the charity).[157]

If a man has the physical ability and strength but still wants to become a beggar, Islam gives a stern reminder to them. Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam has reminded them with these words as below:

Whoever asks from other people when there was nothing to stop him or his family from progressing

and he is able to earn for them, he will come in the Day of Judgement

with a face without a tiny piece of flesh. [158]

 

Whoever begs and asks from other people because of him wanting more despite having earned enough,

then verily he is only adding the fireworks of (the Hell) Jahanam. The men asked:

What does it mean by ‘having earned enough’?

Rasulullah answered: Enough need to supply the dinner until the night.[159]

 

A man amongst you ceases not begging and asking (for money) until he met Allah Azza wa Jalla

(in the Day of Judgement to come) while there wasn’t a trace of flesh in his face (that was left).[160]

 

On the hadith that orders us to give in charity to those who asks for it even if he were to be an owner of a ‘luxurious car’ (Hadith B), it is in truth a guidance from the Prophet so that we don’t judge a man’s wealth solely based on what is apparent of him. There remains a possibility that the wealth that is visible from his person might not tell what is hidden by it; he might have some other problems which are unbearably heavy, hidden behind the veil of his visible wealth.[161] A simple example would be that the car wasn’t his, and that he borrowed it from a friend.

Read closely the following hadith by Qabisah bin Mukhariq radiallahu ‘anhu:

I was carrying a burden (e.g. debt) so I came to Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam to seek his opinion and advice about it. Rasulullah answered: “

Wait until someone comes to us to give in charity. I will ask them to help you.”

Then Rasulullah continued:

O’ Qabisah, verily this act (to ask for money) is not permissible except

if it happens to be one of these three reasons:

[1] A man who carries a heavy burden, he is allowed to ask for money until he could afford himself,

then he stops (from asking).

[2] A man who calamity befell him that it usurped his wealth, it is permissible for him to accept charity

until he could afford his daily needs.

[3] And a man who has grave problems witnessed by 3 people from among his community:

“Verily he is in hardship.” Charity to him is permissible until his needs are fulfilled.

Besides these three reasons, if a man asks for money, O’ Qabisah, it is prohibited;

the beggar is no different to a man eating prohibited food.[162]

 

From the above hadith, it is clear to us that receiving charity is permissible even to a man with apparent physical ability or wealth. This is so because behind the ostensible appearance of the man, he could be dealing with some grave hardships e.g. an accident that destroyed his house and left nothing in the house due to flood, landslide, arson and many other reasons.

Therefore when the Prophet said that every man who asks for money has his rights, what he meant was that every man of such has the right to be wisely considered whether or not he is desperate enough to receive funds. We cannot shun a man mainly because of what we externally see from his appearance. The best conduct is to ask for 3 witnesses to validate the man’s need and desperation. If this can not be achieved, the minimum is for us to investigate on his problem.

If he really is having a problem, it is not unsuitable for him to ask for money. On the other hand if he isn’t in a real hardship but is surrounded by indolence, taking opportunity and misunderstanding of the concept of charity in religion, then he can be– indeed must be– given advices.

Truly, it doesn’t feel good when we see with our own eyes the attitude of a bunch of people from our own nation who has all the imaginable physical abilities but chose not to work or at least try working. They instead beg for money; taking advantage of other’s sympathy.  We as a Muslim nation have to overcome this problem with insight and wisdom. If we have the will and power, we have to sit and discuss with them while giving the best advices. Otherwise if we don’t have the capacity, it is enough to greet them with salam accompanied by an honest curve of smile.

This is totally different from the beggars who has enough physical strength and ability but void of self confidence and knowledge to make effort or to work. These are the people who ask for money through selling some trivial stuff like floor mat, praying mat, religious books, tasbih, utensils and many more. These people have the right to receiving charity. Indeed, even if the things they sell do not match our needs, it is encouraged for us to extend our hands in charity without taking the merchandise on sale. The merchandise is best returned to them.

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Example no: 18 - Rich and poor from Islamic perspectives.

Hadith A: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

I stood in front of the gate of Heaven, then I saw most of its inhabitants are from amongst the poor;

while the rich are being stopped.[163]

 

Hadith B: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

Woe to the slaves of dinar and dirham.[164]

 

Hadith C: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wassalam said:

Verily to every nation there is a test, and the test to my nation is wealth.[165]

 

Hadith D: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

Two foxes let loose to a goat will not incur more damage as compared to a man’s greed for wealth

and his dignity, in destroying his religion.[166]

 

Hadith E: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam prayed:

O’ Allah, make me live poor, make me die poor, and gather me (in the Day of Judgement)

within the ranks of the poor.[167]

 

Hadith F: Anas bin Malik radiallahu ‘anhu narrated;

I was with A‘isyah radiallahu ‘anha in her house in Medina when we heard some noise outside.

Then I asked: “What is this about?” They (the ones outside) replied:

“The party of ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Auf has returned form Sham with merchandise of every kind of things.” Anas said: “Verily the party consisted of 500 camels until that it created a brawl in Medina.

So A‘isyah spoke out: “I heard Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam saying:

Verily I saw ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Auf entering the Heaven crawling.

Anas said: “Then I conveyed the matter to ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Auf.”

He responded: “If I have the capacity I will be able to enter the Heaven standing (walking).

Then ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Auf gave everything on his camels and in his carts i

n the path of Allah Azza wa Jalla.”[168]

 

Hadith G: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam prayed:

O’ Allah, verily I ask for your guidance, God-fearing, cleanliness and richness.[169]

 

Hadith H: Rasulullah sallallahu-alahi-wasallam said:

Verily if you leave your heir wealth, it is better than leaving them in a state of destitute

and begging from the people.[170]

 

Hadith I: Rasulullah salallahu-alaihi-wasallam said:

The best permissible wealth is the wealth owned by righteous people.[171]

 

Hadis J: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

Fight (jihad in the path of Allah) and yours will be the spoils of war, fast and you will be healthy

and travel so that you’ll gain enough wealth.[172]

 

Hadith K:

Destitution almost gives way to infidelity.[173]

 

These 10 ahadith seem to be giving inconsistent guidance between themselves. The Hadith A, B, C, D and E tell us that wealth is disliked in Islam, and it was cursed by Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam, it was even prayed that the ummah is distanced from it, on top of the warning on the hardship one will have to go through- if he was wealthy- in the Day of Judgement. The Hadith G, H, I, J and K on the other hand tell us another story, i.e. wealth is good, it is encouraged for us to work for it, moreover Rasulullah prayed that his ummah would procure wealth. Hadith F will not be taken into account here due to its weak chain and fallacious meaning.

The collection of 10 ahadith as above is yet another example of a group of ahadith which actually complement each other that they have to be taken and understood as a whole and not individually.

If we look and contemplate deeply on all the 10 ahadith as above, we will assuredly find that what is liked or disliked by Islam is not wealth on its own but instead how a person interacts with the wealth in his possessesion. In other words, how a person procures wealth, spends it, keeps it and deals with it.

 

Islam’s opinion on wealth:

Before we explain on the above ahadith, it is important to make clear that Islam does not regard wealth as something contemptuous or despised. If we read and revise the Holy Scripture al-Qur’an al-Karim, we will find a handful of guidance on the real position wealth has in the eyes of Islam. Among them are the words of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala as in the following verse:

And Allâh has preferred some of you above others in wealth and properties. [al-Nahl 16:71]

 

In this verse Allah has affirmed that He Himself has bestowed excess bounty, included in this reference is wealth, to some of His slaves. There is not doubt that we can never say that Allah’s bounty is something disdainful or despised by Him. ‘Some of you’ as refered by Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala in His words as above include the believers and the God-fearing. Observe the words of Allah in the following verses:

And whosoever fears Allâh and keeps his duty to Him, He will make a way for him to get out

(from every difficulty), And He will provide him from (sources) he never could imagine. [al-Talaq 65:2-3]

 

When explaining the guidances in managing the orphans’ wealth, Allah Azza wa Jalla affirmed:

And give not unto the foolish your property which Allâh has made a means of support for you,

but feed and clothe them therewith, and speak to them words of kindness and justice.

And try orphans (as regards their intelligence) until they reach the age of marriage;

if then you find sound judgement in them, release their property to them.

[al-Nisaa’ 4:5-6]

 

The above injunctions clearly tell us that Allah prohibits a man from giving away the wealth of an orphan entrusted under his care to him until the orphan reaches puberty, intellectual and physical ability. If wealth is despised and base by default, or does not have any value in Islam, these injunctions are not even needed. Moreover in this verse Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala has as well given an upgraded value to wealth, that is as something ……which Allâh has made a means of support for you.

Perfectly consistent with the above guidance is the warning from Allah Azza wa Jalla to spendthrifts and squanderers, that they are likened to ‘brothers of the devils’:

Verily, the spendthrifts are brothers of the Shayâtîn (devils), and the Shaitân (Devil-Satan)

is ever ungrateful to his Lord. [al-Isra’ 17:27]

 

This warning clearly shows that wealth is a valuable asset and is highly regarded in Islam. In fact wealth is sometimes refered to as “good” by Allah Tabaraka wa Ta‘ala Himself. Take a close look at the following verses:

They ask you (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) what they should spend,

Say: Whatever you spend of good must be for parents and kindred and orphans

and Al-Masâkîn (the poor) and the wayfarer.”

and whatever you do of good deeds, truly, Allâh knows it well.

[al-Baqarah 2:215]

 

It is prescribed for you, when death approaches any of you, if he leaves any good (wealth),

that he makes a bequest to parents and next of kin, according to reasonable manners.

(This is) a duty upon Al-Muttaqûn.

[al-Baqarah 2:180]

 

Wealth is still refered as al-khair good even when addressing those who are ingrateful of it, who are instead greedy. Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala declared:

Verily, man (disbeliever) is ungrateful to his Lord. And to that he bears witness (by his deeds);

And verily, he is violent in the love of al-Khair (wealth). Knows he not that when the contents of the graves are poured forth (all mankind is resurrected)? [al-‘Aadiyat 100:6-9]

 

On the other hand however, it seems that there are other verses that promote hatred towards wealth. Among them being:

Nay! Verily, man does transgress (in disbelief and evil deed), Because he considers himself self-sufficient.

[al-‘Alaq 96:6-7]

 

And if Allâh were to enlarge the provision for His slaves, they would surely rebel in the earth,

but He sends down by measure as He wills. Verily! He is, in respect of His slaves,

the Well-Aware, the All-Seer (of things that benefit them).

[al-Shura 42:27]

 

Do they think that in wealth and children with which We enlarge them. We hasten unto them

with good things. Nay, [it is a Fitnah (trial) in this worldly life so that they will have

no share of good things in the Hereafter] but they perceive not.

[al-Mu’minun 23:55-56]

 

And it is not your wealth, nor your children that bring you nearer to Us (i.e. please Allâh), but only he who believes (in the Islâmic Monotheism), and does righteous deeds (will please Us);

as for such, there will be twofold reward for what they did,

and they will reside in the high dwellings (Paradise) in peace and security.

[Saba’ 34:37]

 

And strain not your eyes in longing for the things We have given for enjoyment to various groups of them (polytheists and disbelievers in the Oneness of Allâh), the splendour of the life of this world,
that We may test them thereby. But the provision (good reward in the Hereafter)

of your Lord is better and more lasting.

[Taha 20:131]

 

And you devour the inheritance all with greed, And you love wealth with much love!

Nay! When the earth is ground to powder, And your Lord comes with the angels in rows,
And Hell will be brought near that Day. On that Day will man remember,

but how will that remembrance (then) avail him, He will say:

"Alas! Would that I had sent forth (good deeds) for (this) my life!”

[al-Fajr 89:19-24]

 

The mutual rivalry (for piling up of worldly things) diverts you, - Until you visit the graves (i.e. till you die) Nay! You shall come to know! Again nay! You shall come to know!

[al-Takathur 102:1-4]

 

If these verses are carefully examined, it will be clear that the one admonished, advised and warned against are not wealth or wealthy man, but how a man ‘interacts’ with his wealth. The verses are actually directed to those people who think they are self-sufficient because of the amount of wealth they piled; they transgress the limits of Allah until that they incur damage and adds to destruction of the world by means of their wealth; they greedily accumulate wealth, not wanting to pay the obligatory charity and foolishly think that their wealth can secure the love Allah and is able to please Him, when it may actually well be a test, or even a bait, for them. Moreover some of them even dared to hope that these inanimate powerless wealth serve as a protection for them in the coming Day of Judgment when in fact it can do anything but that, except if those wealth was earlier spent in the path of Allah in the forms of zakah, infaq and sadaqah.

These verses invariably invite us to think about our wealth, so that we are neither pulled by it towards neglect or heedlessness, nor making it our main drive or purpose of life- but to use it in order to grasp the love of Allah while at the same time avoid His wrath. Therefore we have to carefully draw a line between these words of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala.

 

Explanation on the ahadith regarding wealth.

Now let us return to the original discussion in this chapter, i.e. to resolve the contradiction between the presented ahadith; some liked while some abhorred it. Let us compare these ahadith one by one.

The first hadith, Hadith A which said I stood in front of the gate of Heaven, then I saw most of its inhabitants are from amongst the poor; while the rich are being stopped does not in any way mean that the wealthy people will be indiscriminately and invariably stopped. This hadith instead only acts as a reminder to the people to be careful and conscientious about the source of the procurement of their wealth and how they will want to spend it.[174] If it is obtained by permissible means and allocations for zakah and other charities are made, there is no reason for the person to be barred from entering the Paradise. In fact in cases where the person in question has made multitude of charitable donations by means of his wealth, he will be sent for the Paradise without any delay. It is worth reminding that Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala will judge on His slaves on the Day of Judgment not only based on one or two deeds, but on everything they did and endeavoured.

Procuring wealth is not something prohibited, was it not true that Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam himself said: …… dan and travel so that you’ll gain enough wealth (Hadith J). Moreover, we find the words of Allah Azza wa Jalla as follows:

O you who believe (Muslims)! When the call is proclaimed for the Salât (prayer) on Friday (Jumu‘ah prayer), come to the remembrance of Allâh [Jumu‘ah religious talk (Khutbah) and Salât (prayer)]

and leave off business (and every other thing). That is better for you if you did but know.

Then when the (Jumu‘ah) Salât (prayer) is ended, you may disperse through the land, and seek the Bounty of Allâh (by working, etc.), and remember Allâh much: that you may be successful.

[al-Jumaah 62:9-10]

 

Therefore the guidance of the above ahadith does not direct us towards thinking that the wealthy will be stopped from entering the Paradise, but to serve as a reminder for the Muslims to be cautious about the means from which their wealth is procured.

Concerning the saying of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam as recorded in Hadith B (which means Woe to the slaves of dinar and dirham), the Prophet was actually cursing men who unashamedly enslave themselves to dinar and dirham, rather than blaming dinar and dirham on this matter. They are the people who make wealth their deity, with it they feel self-sufficient, complete and it is as if they will live forever. Their purpose of living has become solely to collect wealth and richness, so that it turns into mountainous heaps. They will rejoice at its increment, and will suffer catastrophically when it diminishes. This same kind of people has also been cursed by Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala in the al-Qur’an:

Woe to every slanderer and backbiter. Who has gathered wealth and counted it.

He thinks that his wealth will make him last forever! [al-Humazah 104:1-3]

 

If a man sees wealth and richness as a responsibility given by Allah Ta‘ala and he manages it with full integrity and in line with the codes of Islam, he will not be cursed or reproached, quite oppositely he earns the love of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala. Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said regarding this:

Verily Allah loves His slave who is God-fearing, rich and unostentatious.[175]

 

This is more so in the case where the wealth is used to support and build the religion of Islam and construct its ummah as in the example of dakwah, teaching, making jihad, helping the people who go for jihad and many more. These are the people refered to by Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam as the best of the owners of wealth. He said in Hadith I:

The best permissible wealth is the wealth owned by righteous people.

 

The ways that this righteous people interact with their wealth and fortune have been clearly recorded by Allah Tabaraka wa Ta‘ala in al-Qur’an, amongst them being:

Only those are the believers who have believed in Allâh and His Messenger,

and afterward doubt not but strive with their wealth and their lives for the Cause of Allâh.

Those! They are the truthful. [al-Hujerat 49:15]

 

Believe in Allâh and His Messenger (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم),

and spend of that whereof He has made you trustees.

And such of you as believe and spend (in Allâh’s Way), theirs will be a great reward. [Hadid 57:07]

 

That you believe in Allâh and His Messenger (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) and that you strive hard

and fight in the Cause of Allâh with your wealth and your lives: that will be better for you,

f you but know! [al-Saff 61:11]

 

Concerning the hadith … and the test to my nation is wealth (Hadith C), the test can emerge out of lack or even excess in wealth. Wealthy people will be heavily tested from their prosperity in the forms of restraining himself from being greedy (Hadith D), profligacy, boastful etc. On the other hand the less fortunate will also be tested from his scarcity, e.g. in the forms of not to be involved in sinful transactions (Hadith K), begging (Hadith H), being ungrateful and unsatisfied, and many other imaginable and unimaginable reactions. For this reason, Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam, when praying for his ummah to be spared the test from being wealthy, equated both tests from richness and destitution:

O’ Allah, I seek refuge in You from indolence and (from) old age and (from) all kinds of sins

and (from) debt, and from the test of the grave and from the punishment of the grave,

and from the test of the Hell and from the punishment of the Hell, and from the detrimental test of wealth and I seek refuge in You from the test of destitution.[176]

 

The last of the above ahadith is the prayer made by Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam (Hadith E) which bears the meaning: O’ Allah, make me live poor, make me die poor, and gather me (in the Day of Judgement) within the ranks of the poor.

The meaning of poor as mentioned by Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam in his prayer in the above hadith has to be described with guidance from other two hadith, the first being the prayer of Rasulullah in seeking refuge from destitution:

And I seek refuge in You from destitution…..[177] and the second is the prayer of Rasulullah in which he asks for fortune (Hadith G): O’ Allah, verily I ask for your guidance, God-fearing, cleanliness and richness.

The guidance from these last two prayers by Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam certainly make us inquire, what did he mean by ‘poor’ in the first prayer? If he meant material poverty, wouldn’t Rasulullah have prayed with the words: O’ Allah, make me live a fakir, make me die a fakir, and gather me (in the Day of Judgement) within the ranks of the fakir.” This is because the word fakir clearly brings with it material connotation. But the fact is, Rasulullah did not use this word, and when further compared to the other prayers he made (as can be found above), the word ‘poor’ used by Rasulullah can only be explained and refered to as tawadhu’ and humility.[178]

On the same hadith, Ibn Athir[179] maintained: What he meant was tawadhu’ and humility, and that he is not made to be with the proud and boasters.[180]  Al-Munawi[181] and al-Ajluni[182] quoted the words of Shaikh al-Islam Zakariya[183]: The meaning is, he asked for tawadhu’ and humility and to be excluded from the proud, boasters and those who indulge in wealth.[184]

From what we compared and collated between the 10 ahadith, the Prophet’s message and intent has become crystal clear to us. As we maintained before, all the 10 ahadith are complementary that they need to be understood collectively, not individually. After such an analysis is done, consolidated by the guidance from al-Qur’an al-Karim, it can not be doubted that Islam promotes moderation in the matters of wealth and its procurement, without swerving or inclining to either extremes.

 

Additional Explanation

Based on our observation an analysis, among the most misunderstood Islamic teaching is the concept of wealth and richness. Generally many of us prefer to see Islam as an opponent of wealth, teaching Muslims to avoid wealth if possible. The situation is made worse by the preachers and orators who maintain and emphasize the contemptuousness of wealth, making it an obligation to be set aside. They are not free from conveying the stories of how several individuals in the past have lived with nothing of the wealth, thinking that this is the way of life coherent with the codes of Islam.

This is a complete misunderstanding. Before this we have made a long list of the verses from al-Qur’an al-Karim that speak on wealth and fortune on top of the extended and deep discussion on the related ahadith. All of them collectively depict wealth as a valuable asset in Islam- in fact its status is much upgraded. If there are any admonitions or advices, it is directed specifically to the ways a man interact with the bounty he was given, never it is to do with the nature of the wealth itself.

Ibn al-Jauzi[185] said:

It cannot be denied that wealth makes part of the matters that could invite the uninvited test and many people have avoided it to avoid the greater disaster from the test. On top of that, procuring wealth is never easy, it is indeed harder to pass the test safely than to be inflicted by the risks it brings. Moreover the heart will be shrouded with uneasiness in such person, and it is hard to remind him about the implacability of the Hereafter. For these reasons it is much worried that it will invite an unbearable test which in effect brings disastrous calamity.

If the wealth is gained by a man’s own effort, only to fulfil his daily needs from undisputably permissible means, there is no ambiguity in its virtue and goodness. But if he aspires to pile up his wealth into hills and mountains, even from the permissible means, his intention must be cleared. If he intends to boast about it, proud to present himself to the people as a rich man, his intention is perverted and corrupted. On the other hand if he intends to feed and satisfy the needs of his family and those under his responsibility, then to save some of it for himself and his family’s future after his death, and perhaps helping some friends and give donations to the needy and make charity to help the community, there is no doubt that he will rewarded without any injustices. Of course, saving money with such intention is better than many other righteous actions.

Such was the intention that can be found in many of the companions of the Prophet radiallahu ‘anhum concerning collecting wealth, their intention is pure because they have righteous aims to serve. Because of this they make wealth a priority and always ask to be increased in it.

Also before this, we have briefly mentioned what some of the companions of the Prophet have left upon their death. And Sufyan al-Tsauri, for example, left 200 dinar upon his death saying: “Wealth in this period of time is not unlike weaponry.” It goes on that the people of the past praised wealth and the people who accumulate it to fund the future and help the needy.

There is however one group of people who turned their backs to wealth in order for them to be able to concentrate on their worships, lest their attention to the Day of Judgment is impaired by thinking about wealth, and they lived simply by having their basic needs fulfilled. If at this stage, someone says: “To interact with wealth in reservation is better”, then know that such claim is akin to ours, except that it is a little bit more inclined to the pit of sin.[186]

His words are inarguably true.

If anyone thinks deeply about wealth and its use and function to men, its beneficence will come to light, more so to the Muslims today who are nothing more than a species being toyed; being taken advantage from when needed, but trashed the rest of the time.

With wealth the Muslims can stand and regain its position and humble themselves on the surface of this earth. Through wealth Muslims can initiate and maintain academic institutions and elevate the nation from its lowliness and ignorance to one of knowledge, from being a blind follower to a wise thinker, from a consumer to a producer and from dogma-bound to creativists and optimists. Through wealth the Muslims can fund their own satellite television via which authentic and true perspective of any issues can disseminate. Through wealth Muslims can equip themselves with enough armaments in order to serve as protection when marred or insulted. Through wealth Muslims can establish its own economy and help other countries, without taking into account whether or not it is a Muslim country, so long that they can be helped without being involved in usury, capitalism, and other corruptions.

If we dig into the history of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam, it will come to light that wealth and richness existed in various forms like gold plates of dinar and dirham, or animals for speed as in horses, animals for carrying luggage as in camels and asses, cows, and many more. Other than that wealth was in the forms of chain mails, armours, swords, spears, arrows and the likes of them. All of this various forms of wealth and richness have played important parts in the spread and establishment of Islam as an independent nation. Their role is so massive and penetrating that Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam once said about them:

No wealth has given me so much benefit as the wealth of Abu Bakar has benefited me.[187]

The wealth of Abu Bakar al-Siddiq radiallahu ‘anhu did not benefit Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam until that Rasulullah build a palace for himself or live in extravaganve but clearly its benefits manifest in the form of its contribution to Islam as a whole. This hadith also acknowledges the contribution and charity from the other companions to Rasulullah sallallahu-alihi-wasallam for the sake of Islam and its nation, but it highlights the incomparable amount Abu Bakar, on his own, has donated in comparison to the rest of the companions. (Refer back to Hadith B in Example no.11).

Some people said,”we have chosen a living that refrains and avoids wealth and luxury simply to follow the example set by Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam. Rasulullah lived in a house comparable only to a small hut, slept on a mat made from the bark of the date-trees and put on not more than 3 clothes. This is why we have chosen to live like this, with minimal wealth. Verily to follow his example is far better than having all the wealth.”

We argue that the way of living chosen by these few people cannot at its least be regarded as following the example of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam. The truth is, they wronged it.

In fact Rasulullah was the richest and wealthiest man during his time. Was it not true that Rasulullah ruled a land covering the whole Arabian Peninsula, equipped with countless military arsenal including horses, swords etc, with an ever-ready power and might to expand the Islamic opening to other districts and territories[188], owning the mountainous war booty and many more unspoken wealth?

It is an open contradiction to say that Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam was poor. The truth is, he was both rich and poor at the same time. However his richness and poorness are very different and clearly distinguishable from ours. Rasulullah was very rich but he did not indulge or even tasted it. It was all spent to the betterment of Islam and the Muslims. With that Rasulullah was left with living in little possessions but this poorness never did any bad to him, his religion, or his followers.

Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam was poor not because of no reason but it sprouted from his steadfastness to live satisfying no more his basic needs, being moderate and be grateful to whatever is in his hands even if it was scanty. In such a situation he did not leave any of his responsibilities, performing every one of them without any perceptible impairment.

This is noticeably starkly different from the pattern of poorness which some of the Muslims have chosen to live in during this era, claiming to follow the footsteps of the Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam. The poorness they live in is sheer destitution; they are in that state not as a result of giving their wealth for charity but because of their indolence and not wanting to work. They are unemployed and dependant, hoping to survive on other people’s money. Their destitute lives generally do nothing to help strengthen the religion or the Muslims, quite oppositely they have become a burden to them. How is it so that they could claim to follow the example of Rasulullah ? The two are so different!

Having said that, it is disliked to have the other group of people, the wealthy ones, to think that they are the blessed group who live in accordance with the guidance from Rasulullah- when they don’t. As we have argued above, Rasulullah has never tasted the wealth he technically owned because they are all given in charity to help the well-being of the Muslims. If the contemporary tycoon and millionaires are in the footsteps of Rasulullah, they certainly are in the right and guided way. If this is not the case, and it seldom is, here is a lesson for all of us to learn.[189]

Besides these two groups there is another group of people who shun wealth and richness in the name of zuhud. To this people we say, that the real meaning of zuhud is to empty the heart from any ties or clinging to earthly possessions, and this is not the same as emptying our hands from them. A real man of zuhud will accept the wealth given to them without the heart feeling overwhelmed by it, and when it is taken from him, he will let go of it without any hesitation, let alone any sorrow. A real man of zuhud is the man when status is given to him, he accepts it without being proud of it and when it is taken from him, he freely releases it without any hesitation or feelings of disgrace.

A man practicing real zuhud has a conscious heart and acknowledges that whatever is with Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala is better and permanent, as elucidated by this verse of the Qur’an:

And whatever you have been given is an enjoyment of the life of (this) world and its adornment,

and that (Hereafter) which is with Allâh is better and will remain forever.

Have you then no sense? [al-Qasas 28:60]

 

Therefore, if we happen to see a person who deliberately chooses to live with minimal wealth, it is not right to jump straight into awarding him the title of zuhud. Conversely a man of abundance of wealth must not be immediately categorized as the opposite of zuhud. The rightful way to distinguish between the two is– when it is not at all discernible on a person any signs of zuhud. This is so because zuhud is what is within the heart, not without. No one person can claim to know about it but Allah Azza wa Jalla and the man in question himself.[190]

As an emphasis, it is not right to avoid having wealth and possessions to achieve zuhud. In fact if a person honestly aspires to become zuhud, he must start working to procure wealth while at the same time train his heart to be zuhud towards his possessions.

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Example no: 19 - Status of ablution on touching the private parts.

In the previous chapters (Examples 3 – 17) we have gone quite deep to explain on the methods to resolve contradictions between two or more ahadith using al-Jam‘u, i.e. taking into account all the ahadith and understand it collectively. However the situation is not always as simple. There may exist two or more narrations that contradict each other until that they cannot be resolved through al-Jam‘u due to the absence of clear guidance and a way to understand it collectively. In these rare cases, we use al-Tarjih.

Linguistically, al-Tarjih means preferring one that is more inclined towards it and thus strengthens it. In technical terms, al-Tarjih means A mujtahid’s preference on one of two arguments that are contradictory based on something that makes it preferable, in order to justify its practices.[191]

Now we will present an example of 2 narrations that need tarjih to resolve the contradiction between them, starting with the hadith on the validity of ablution when the private part is touched:

 

Hadith A: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

Whoever touches his penis has to make up his ablution.[192]

 

Hadith B: Talaq bin ‘Ali radiallahu ‘anhu reported:

A man from the inland (Bedwi) came to the Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam and asked:

O Prophet of Allah, what is your opinion on a man who touches his penis after having made his ablution?

The Prophet answered: Is it not that the penis is only part of the man’s flesh? [193]

In another narration: No need (because) verily it is but part of your body. [194]

 

Hadith A and B seem to be contradictory. The former makes ablution obligatory when the private part is touched, but the latter dismisses its necessity. Between the two, it is impossible to practice both guidances simultaneously- there doesn’t seem to be any way to do so. For this reason, we will have to apply tarjih.

One of the methods in tarjih in dealing with two clashing statements- one of it imposing restriction (making prohibition) and the other giving permissibility (making it halal)- is to prefer the imposing statement to the latter. This is so because preferring a restriction is closer to being cautious and itself is a safer way, as advised by Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam:

Verily the permissible is clear and indeed the prohibited is clear. Between these two is vague (mushtabihat); it is unknown by many people.

Whosoever protects himself from the vague, he is indeed protecting his religion and his dignity.

And whosoever puts himself into the vague, he indeed is putting himself into the prohibited.

The likeness of it is of a shepherd who fosters his herd around a prohibited land,

they almost happen to trespass.

Know that every ruler has his prohibited land. Know that indeed the prohibited land of Allah is

whatever that has been made impermissible by Him.

Know that in a man’s body there is a piece of flesh, when it is pure, the whole body is pure.

But when it is corrupt, the whole body will corrupt with it. Know that (the piece of flesh) is the heart.[195]

 

Therefore, between the two contradictory statements presented above it is recommended to prefer Hadith A to Hadith B as a catious and safer option: A man’s ablution is nullified upon him touching his private parts.

Concerning the verdict that supports the preservation of ablution after such action, most probably it is a specific explanation of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam to answer the question of a man of the Bedwi. The Prophet’s answer is nothing but to avoid burdening him with too much hardship. It may well be that the questioner has only recently embraced Islam and Rasulullah disliked to impose on him rules that are new and strange to him. Surely this is how wisdom and shrewdness manifest in the teaching of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam. Undoubtedly, when it is obvious that the man has adapted himself to Islam and be content with it, the real verdict will be made plain to him, i.e. the ablution is nullified upon touching the private parts.[196]

Refering to the same example, there is another way of doing tarjih; i.e. when two narrations meet in opposition, the hadith that is in line with other arguments has to be preferred to the one that stands on its own. What is meant by other argument is sources like al-Qur’an, al-Sunnah, ijma’, the practices of majority of the companions, etc.

To conclude, in the above case, Hadith A is preferable because it is consistent with another hadith containing the same guidance but directed to women:

Whosoever touches her private part has to make up ablution.[197]

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Example no: 20 - To pass water while standing.

Hadith A: Hudzaifah radiallahu ‘anhu said:

I was with the Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam, he relieved himself (passed water)

at a tribe’s waste yard while standing.[198]

 

Hadith B: A‘isyah radiallahu ‘anha said:

Anyone who narrates to you about the Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam passing water while standing;

do not approve of it. He has never passed water but in seating. [199]

 

Above is another example of a pair of contradictory narrations that cannot be resolved through al-Jam‘u. Hadith A describes the act of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam passing water in his stand while Hadith B from the wife of Rasulullah – A‘isyah radiallahu ‘anha, adamantly denies this very action.

Due to the lack of additional hints and guidance to compare and collate the ahadith, the door to tarjih is wide open for us to prefer one of the two narrations. By the way of tarjih, when two contradictory statements surface; with the first making firm a matter (mutsbit) and the second denying it (manfi), the former is preferred. This is so because it may well be that the narrator of the latter hadith is not in possession of the knowledge the former’s narrator has. Moreover, we can conveniently say that no one narrator will deliberately make stories up about Rasulullah sallallahu-alihi-wasallam unless if he is certain of it. This is, as it is now obvious, very different from the denying narrator- he could be denying something because of his absence when the very act was done by Rasulullah.

Refering to the inconsistency between Hadith A and B as above, Hadith A is the mutsbit while Hadith B is manfi. Therefore Hadis A is preferred to Hadis B.

Concerning the denial of A‘isyah in Hadith B, it was made based on her own observation and experience of life with Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam- mostly at home. It has to be made known here that A‘isyah did not always accompany the Prophet in his travels, missions or the opening expeditions (wars). The chance to be the Prophet’s company in these occasions is being equally divided between his wives. Therefore what A‘isyah denied does not include the etiquettes of the Prophet when being away from home.

This is what we meant in the preceding paragraphs when the method of tarjih was explained. When a narrator denies anything, it could simply be due to his absence during when the very action in question was practiced by Rasulullah.

 

Additional explanation:

Even though Hadith A as above describes Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam as relieving himself while standing, we have to keep it mind that it is an isolated case. The etiquette of passing water in Islam is while sitting, as made clear by Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam himself:

Three (acts) are from the (characteristics of the) rough: a man who wipes the dust on his face

before he finishes his prayer, and blows the dust on where he puts his face (for prostration)

doing that in his prayers, and when passing water, he stands.[200]

 

In another hadith, from Umar al-Khattab radiallahu-anhu, he narrated:

The Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam saw me relieving myself in while standing, and he said:

 “O’ Umar! Do not pass water while standing.” [201]

Umar said: From then on I’ve never passed water while standing.[202]

 

So does the statement of A‘isyah radiallahu ‘anhu (Hadith B), that Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam usually relieves himself while seating.

Therefore every Muslim has to pay adequate attention to observe the etiquettes of relieving himself (or herself). To do this while standing is permissible in some isolated cases, due to hardship, inabilities or impossibilities created by internal or external factors.

 


 

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[1]               Sound: Hadith from Abu Hurairah radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, Muslim and others, see Sahih al-Bukhari – no: 6724 (Book of Faraid, Chapter lessons on Faraid).

[2]               Weak chain: Hadith from ‘Abd Allah ibn Abbas radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated only by Ibn ‘Asakir in Tarikh al-Damsyq, vol 57, pg 126-127 from the chain of Abu al-‘Abbas Mahmud bin Muhammad bin al-Fadhl al-Rafiqi, narrated to me by Abu ‘Abd Allah Ahmad bin Abi Ghanam al-Rafiqi…… . Nasr al-Din al-Albani said in Silsilah Hadits Dhaif dan Maudhu’, vol 3, pg 427, no: 1152: When Ibn ‘Asakir presents Abu al-Abbas’s biography, didn’t clarify his attitude, said no praises nor disapprovement. Whereas his teacher, Ahmad bin Abi Ghanam al-Rafiqi, to my knowledge was not mentioned by any hadith scholars.

[3]               Mentioned by Ibn Kathir in Tafsir al-Qur‘an al-‘Adzim, vol 4, pg 193, (exegesis of verse 49:12).

[4]               Abu Bakar Muhammad bin Sirin is a renowned figure from among the followers (tabi‘in), his father was a slave of Anas bin Malik radiallahu ‘anhu. He listened to and conducted many fiqh classes. Died in 110H.

[5]               al-Ashbahani – al-Taubikh wa al-Tanbih, no: 97; taken from Tafsir Surat al-Hujurat: Manhaj Pembentukan Masyarakat Berakhlak Islam, pg 273 by Nashir bin Sulaiman al-’Umar.

[6]               He is Abu Qalabah ‘Abd Allah bin Zaid al-Jarami, a follower who received many ahadith from the companions. Resided in Basrah, Iraq and died in 104H.

[7]               By Abu Nuaim dalam Hilya h al-Auliya’, no: 2411 (Tabaqat Ahl al-Madinah: ‘Abd Allah bin Zaid al-Jarami).

[8]               Sound: Part of haith from ‘A‘isyah radiallahu ‘anha, narrated by Ahmad, Muslim and al-Firyabi (al-Siyam), also by al-Nasa’i (al-Sunan al-Kubra) with a slightly different text, see Sahih Muslim – no: 1156-4 (Book of fasting, Chapter of the prophet’s (PBUH) fasts besides Ramadan.........).

[9]               Weak: Hadith from Abu Hurairah radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated by ‘Abd al-Razzaq (7325), Ibn Abi Syaibah (9026), Ahmad (9668), al-Darimi (1781), Abu Daud (2237), al-Tirmizi (735), Ibn Majah (1651), al-Nasa’i (al-Sunan al-Kubra – no: 2911), al-Tohawi (Syarh Ma‘ani al-Athar – no: 3243), Ibn Hibban (3589), al-Baihaqi (7961) and al-Khatib al-Baghdadi (Tarikh al-Baghdad, vol 8, pg 47), text above is from Abu Daud, all are from al-‘Alaa’, his father, and Abu Hurairah.

                There are arguments on this hadith’s status, with some scholars approve it and some confute it. We are inclined to the latter for these reasons:

[1] al-‘Alaa’, his full name al-‘Alaa’ bin ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Ya’kub al-Madani, is a widely accepted narrator. Moreover, he is one of the narrators in Sahih Muslim. This is so but in Yahya bin Ma’in’s opinion, that he said: His narrations cannot be used as arguments. (al-Mizzi – Tahzib al-Kamal – narrator no: 4577) whereas in another source he said: His narrations are mixed (al-‘Uqaili – al-Dhu‘afa’ al-Kabir – narrator no: 1369).

[2] The hadith is not in line with the sound ahadith that discuss this topic. The latter mention Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam as fasting continuously until the month of Ramadhan. Ahmad bin Hanbal said, as narrated by Abu Daud: This hadith is anomalous (al-Baihaqi – al-Sunan al-Kubra, vol 4, pg 353). Also, as al-Nasai narrated, he said: al-‘Alaa’ bin ‘Abd al-Rahman is trustworthy, all his ahadith are acceptable but this one. (cited by al-Nawawi in Majmu’ Syarh al-Muhazzab, vol 6, pg 292). al-Dzahabi said: His (this) hadith is not downgraded from ‘hasan’, but we are doubtful of the contradiction that it brings. (Siyar A’lam al-Nubala, vol 6, pg 187).

We say, the characteristic of thiqah found in al-‘Alaa’ bin ‘Abd al-Rahman is valid only when he narrates a hadith in line with other sound ahadith. However Hadith B as given above shows a contradiction and shunning (tafarrud) from other various sound ahadith. This is as what was meant by Ahmad when he said Hadis ini mungkar, where mungkar in this context means isolation, i.e. being different from other ahadith. al-‘Alaa’s position as a narrator of Sahih Muslim by no means validate all his narration as sound. We have to differentiate between narrator of Sahih Muslim and hadith of Sahih Muslim. The former indicates his grade as a narrator,whereas the latter refers to the ahadith narrated by him. This is why Imam Muslim excluded this hadith from his Sahih. al-Suyuti said in Syarh Tadrib al-Rawi fi Syarh Taqrib al-Nawawi, pg 86: Muslim excluded this hadith because al-‘Alaa’ was its lone supporter, and it appears to render void other ahadith.

Therefore this hadith is weak (daif), or more accurately is syadz, i.e. a hadith narrated by a trusted (thiqah) narrator but its text or chain wrongs other narrations which are more reliable.

Compare with Syu‘aib al-Arna’uth’s explanation in the footnote of Siyar A’lam al-Nubala, vol 6, pg 187 and Abu ‘Ashim Nabil bin Hashim al-Ghumari – Fath ul-Manan: Syarh wa Tahqiq al-Musnad al-Jamii’ al-Darimi, vol 7, pg 363-364.

[10]             He is Muhammad bin ‘Ali bin Muhammad al-Syaukani, a mujtahid in the 13th century after Hijrah. From Yaman, since his early years he learnt many Islamic knowledge that eventually put him as a mujtahid. Written many papers and books in many brances of Islam like creed, exegesis, fiqh, hadith, adab and others. Died in 1250H, or in some narrations 1252H and 1255H.

[11]             Nail al-Authar, vol 3, pg 243. Compare with al-Nawawi’s explanation in al-Majmu’ Syarh al-Muhazzab, vol 6, pg 292-293.

[12]             It is recommended to study ‘Abd al- Ghani Azmi bin Hj. Idris’s work (2000M) entitled Amalan Bid‘ah pada bulan Muharram, Rejab, Sya’ban dan Ramadhan (al-Hidayah, Kuala Lumpur 1995).

[13]             Sound: Hadith from Abu Said al-Khudri radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated by Ahmad, Muslim, al-Tirmizi and others, see Sahih Muslim – no: 343. (Book of Menses, Chapter: The obligation of washing after ejaculation).

[14]             Sound: Hadith from ‘A‘isyah radiallahu ‘anha, narrated by Ahmad, Muslim and others, see Sahih Muslim – no: 349. (Book of menses, Chapter: The abrogation of washing because of ejaculation).

[15]             Sound chain: Narrated by Ahmad, Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibban, its chain graded sound by Syu‘aib al-Arna’uth in his auditing of Sahih Ibn Hibban – no: 1179. (Book of Taharah, Chapter: Obligatory washing).

[16]             Good (Hasan): with three chains of narrators:

[1]           Narrated by al-Tirmizi (2148) and Ibn Majah (no: 3437, Kitab al-Tibb, Chapter: Allah created not an illness without also creating its cure) with the text above from Sufyan bin Uyaynah, from al-Zuhri, from Ibn Abi Khizamah, from Abi Khizamah from his father. Ibn Abi Khizamah, is unkown (majhul), evidence to support him as a narrator of hadith is not found (al-Jarh wa al-Ta’dil). Further, see al-Mizzi – Tahzib al-Kamal, vol 34, pg 437, narrator no: 7720; and al-Dzahabi – Mizan al-Iktidal, vol 7, pg 450, narrator no: 10787; Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani – Tahzib al-Tahzib, vol 12, pg 292, narrator no: 1431 and Taqrib al-Tahzib, vol 2, pg 508, narrator no: 8510.

[2]           Narrated by al-Tirmizi in another chain, without Ibn Abi Khizamah (2065), i.e. from Sufyan bin Uyaynah, from al-Zuhri, from Abi Khizamah, from his father. al-Tirmizi said this (chian) is stronger and hence rated it hasan sahih. About Abu Khizamah, see al-Mizzi – Tahzib al-Kamal, vol 33, pg 279, narrator no: 7341 and Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani – al-Isabah fi Tamyiz al-Sahabah, vol 7, pg 89, narrator no: 9837.

Both chains include Sufyan bin Uyaynah, a well known imam but a mudallis. It is also known that he will not do tadlis except from a trusted thiqah person. See Ibrahim bin Muhammad al-‘Ajami – Tibyan al-Asma’ al-Mudallis, pg 94, narrator no: 29 and Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani – Tabaqat al-Mudallis, pg 32, narrator no: 52.

[3]           Narrated by Ibn Hibban (6100) with a slightly different text, from Ka‘ab bin Malik radiallahu ‘anhu, Ishaq bin Ibrahim is one of the narrators, he is being argued upon, as explained by the examiner Syu‘aib al-Arna’uth.

With this, we rate this hadith as good (hasan).

This hadith is also narrated from Hakim bin Hazm, by al-Thabarani (al-Mu’jam al-Kabir, vol 3, pg 192, no: 3090) and al-Hakim (87, 88, 7431 & 8223) without mentioning ‘we use for protection’. A similar hadith is also narrated by al-Thabarani from Abi Khizamah (al-Mu’jam al-Kabir, vol 6, pg 47, no: 5468) with at least a weakness, see Majma’ al-Zawa‘id – no: 8283.

[17]             Good chain: Hadith from ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘ud radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated by Ahmad, Ibn Majah, al-Hakim and Ibn Hibban, its chain rated good by Ahmad Syakir in his examination on Musnad Ahmad – no: 3615. (Musnad ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘ud, haddathana Abu Muawiyah.......).

[18]             Sound: Narrated by Muslim and Abu Daud, see Sahih Muslim – no: 2200 (Kitab al-Salam, Bab Tidak mengapa dengan ruqya.........).

[19]             al-Sindi – Syarh Sunan Ibn Majah, vol 4, pg 88; al-Mubarakfuri – Tuhfah al-Ahwazi Syarh Jami’ al-Tirmizi, vol 6, pg 300.

[20]             Ibn Athir – al-Nihayah fi Gharib al-Hadis wa al-Athar, vol 1, pg 192.

[21]             In the words of ‘A‘isyah radiallahu ‘anha: al-Tamimah is not something hanged (used) after a misfortune, but al-Tamimah is something hanged (used) before a misfortune (ro repel it). [Good: Narrated by al-Hakim and cited by al-Munziri in al-Targhib wa al-Tarhib – no: 5070 (Chapter Censure against using amulet or charm) and its chain rated good by Muhyiddin Dibb Mastu and his friends in their examination of that book].

[22]             Ibn al-Qayyim – The Prophetic Medicine, pg 195.

[23]             Ibn Athir – al-Nihayah, vol 1, pg 195.

[24]             Kamus Dewan: Tangkal (pg 1371).

[25]             Kamus Dewan: Azimat (pg 79).

[26]             Zaki al-Din Sya’ban – Usul al-Fiqh al-Islami, pg 322; cited from Muqaranah Mazahib fil Ushul, pg 195-196 by Romli SA. The original text in arabic is as follows:

العما هو اللفظ الموضوع وضعا واحدا والذى يشمل جميع الأفراد التي يصدق عليها معناه من غير حصر فى كمية معينة.

[27]             ‘Abd al-Wahhab Khalaf – Ilmu Usul al-Fiqh, pg 191; cited from Muqaranah Mazahib fil Ushul, pg 195-196 by Romli SA. The original text in arabic is as follows:

الخاص هو لفظ وضع للدلالة على فرد واحد.

[28]             Muhammad Wafaa – Metode Tarjih, pg 126.

[29]             Good chain: Abbreviated from hadith of Uqbah bin Amir al-Juhani radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated by Ahmad and its chain judged hasan by Muhyiddin Dibb Mastu and his friends in their examination of al-Targhib wa al-Tarhib – no: 5065 (Chapter Ancaman dari menggantung tangkal dan azimat) while Hamzah Ahmad Zain judged it as sahih, see Musnad Ahmad – 17353 (Kitab Hadith Uqbah bin Amir al-Juhani, haddathana ‘Abd al-Samad………). al-Haithami in Majma’ al-Zawa‘id – no: 8399 ascribes the narration to al-Thabarani.

[30]             Good chain: Hadith from Uqbah bin Amir radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated by Ahmad (17335), Abu Ya’la (1759), al-Thabarani (al-Mu’jam al-Kabir, vol 17, no: 820), Ibn Hibban (6086) al-Hakim (7501) and al-Baihaqi (al-Sunan al-Kubra – no: 19605), each of them is through Khalid bin ‘Ubaid al-Ma‘afiri- who is graded ‘trustworthy’ only by Ibn Hibban (Kitab al-Thiqah – perawi no: 7644). The other narrators are agreed to be trustworthy and sound. al-Munziri said: The chain is undisputed (Targhib wa al-Tarhib – no: 5064). The examiner of Targhib wa al-Tarhib said – Muhyiddin Dibb Mastu and friends: Isnadnya hasan. The examiner of Musnad Ahmad said – Hamzah Ahmad Zain: The chain is sound. Nasr al-Din al-Albani said: The chain is weak because of Khalid bin ‘Ubaid’s doubted reputation [Silsilah Hadis Daif wa Maudhu’ – no: 1266]

We are inclined to rate this chain hasan, not sahih because it is known that Ibn Hibban is less strict in judging a narrator, neither it is weak for Ibn Hibban himself is trusted in his judgments except in some cases that are too long to be discussed here.

[31]             It is an illness that ranges from the shoulder to the forearm, treated with incantations and sometimes a wristband. Worn by men, not women. As a charm, it is prohibited. [Summary from al-Nihayah fi Gharib, vol 5, pg 203.]

[32]             Good chain: Hadith frmo Imran bin Husain radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated by Ahmad (19885), Ibn Majah (3531), al-Thabarani (al-Mu’jam al-Kabir, vol 18, no: 391) and Ibn Hibban (6075), above is its text, they are all through Mubarak bin Fadhalah, from Ibn Abi al-Hasan al-Basri, from Imran bin Husain. This chain is discussed on its continuity as explained by al-Hafiz al-Munziri (Targhib wa al-Tarhib – no: 5067) and Syu‘aib al-Arna’uth (Sahih Ibn Hibban, vol 13, pg 449-450). al-Bushiri judges the chain as hasan, so did Muhyiddin Dibb Mastu and friends, while Hamzah Ahmad Zain judges it sound (Musnad Ahmad, vol 15, pg 97).

[33]             Sound: An abbreviation of hadith of Abu Basyir al-Anshari radiallahu anhu, narrated by al-Bukhari, Muslim and others, see Sahih Muslim – no: 2115 (Kitab Pakaian dan perhiasan, Bab tidak disukai kalung tali di leher unta).

[34]             Brought by Muslim immediately after presenting the above hadith, also by al-Asqalani in Fath al-Bari, vol 6, pg 249, syarah hadis no: 3005. Some said, the prohibition is to avoid suffocating the camels when running or eating.

[35]             He is al-Imam al-Hafiz Ahmad bin ‘Ali bin Muhammad al-Kinani. A renowned hadith scholar known as Amir al-Hadith (Leader of hadith). Born in 773H and died in 852H. Wrote many works, the most celebrated being Fath al-Bari, an exegesis of Sahih al-Bukhari.

[36]             Fath al-Bari, vol 6, pg 250 (explanation of hadith of tying bells on camels’ necks). See also al-Baihaqi’s explanation in al-Sunan al-Kubra, vol 9, pg 589 (Kitab Urusan Korban dan Sembelihan, Bab Tangkal dan azimat).

[37]             See Fath al-Bari,vol 11, pg 353, explanation on hadith no: 5735. (Kitab Pengubatan, Bab Jampian dengan al-Qur‘an dan al-Mu‘awwizati).

[38]             He is Imam Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Hanbal, to him is ascribed the Hanbali school of thought. Born in Baghdad in 164H, traveled to many corners of Islamic world to acquire hadith and knowledge. His most known and beneficial work is Musnad Ahmad which registers more than 30,000 ahadith of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam and the companions atsar. Died in 241H.

[39]             Quoted by al-Suyuti in Medicine of The Prophet, pg 171.

[40]             Good (without the narrator’s addition: And ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Amru used to..........): Hadith of ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Amr radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated by Ahmad (6696), Abu Daud (3745), al-Tirmizi (3590) and al-Hakim (2010), the above text is Abu Daud’s while al-Tirmizi’s explain how the du’a was written on paper and tied around the children’s necks. Also narrated by Ibn Abi Syaibah (23594), al-Nasa’i (‘Amal al-Yaum wa al-Lail – no: 766) and Ibn Sunni (al-Adzkar al-Nawawi – no: 259) without the addition: And ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Amru used to.......... .

These narrations are all through Muhammad bin Ishaq, from ‘Amr bin Syu‘aib, from his father, from his grandfather that Rasulullah.......... . There are two disputed narrators in this chain:

[1]           ‘Amr bin Syu‘aib: His ahadith are accepted except when he narrates from his father, from his grandfather. Abu Daud, the author of Sunan Abu Daud, said: ‘Amr bin Syu‘aib from his father from his grandfather doesn’t make a qualified argument. This is also the opinion of al-Tirmizi, Yahya bin Ma‘in, Yahya bin Sa‘id al-Qathan and al-Mizzi, as quoted by Syamsul Haq Abadi in Aun al-Ma’bud Syarh Sunan Abu Daud, vol 1, pg 178-179 (Kitab Taharab, Bab berwudhu’ tiga kali-tiga kali). Further, see al-‘Uqaili – al-Dhu‘afa’ al-Kabir – narrator no: 1280, Ibn ‘Adiy – al-Kamil fi Dhu‘afa’ al-Rijal, narrator no: 1281 and al-Mizzi – Tahzib al-Kamal – narrator no: 4375.

[2]           Muhammad bin Ishaq: A known mudallis, his narrations from ‘Amr dengan lafaz ‘an is not accepted. Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalani said: Honest (but) known (to practice) tadlis from weak or unknown narrators. [Tabaqat al-Mudallis – narrator no: 125] Further, see Abu Sa‘id bin Khalil – Jami’ al-Tahsil fi Ahkam al-Marasil – narrator no: 666 and Ibrahim bin Muhammad – al-Tibyan li Asma’al-Mudallis – narrator no: 63. Clearly, Ibn Ishaq once narrated from ‘Amr bin Syu‘aib with the word haddathani in Musnad Ahmad – no: 7037 and Sunan al-Nasa’i – no: 4795. When Ibn Ishaq narrates from ‘Amr bin Syu‘aib with the word ‘an, it means that he has narrated it from somebody before ‘Amr bin Syu‘aib.

                This hadith is graded sound by al-Hakim while al-Dzahabi kept silent. This doesn’t mean much, for al-Hakim is well known among the scholars to be lax when grading a hadith. Our concern is Ahmad Muhammad Syakir’s judgment on this hadith, when he examined Musnad Ahmad, vol 6, pg 246 where he said: Isnadnya sahih. al-Allamah Ahmad Syakir might know something we don’t, and Allah knows best.

                Other than that, Nasr al-Din al-Albani said in Sahih Sunan Abu Daud – no: 3893: Hasan without “And ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Amru used to..........” .

In our opinion, he rated hasan only for the supplication taught by Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam without the additional explanation by the narrator. The supplication itself has another chain which is sound from Khalid bin al-Walid radiallahu ‘anhu, whereby Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam taught him a similar du’a:

I seek refuge, with Allah’s perfect words, from His wrath and punishment, from the evil of His slaves, and from the devils’ temptation and their presence in me.

It is narrated by Malik (1704), Ibn Abi Syaibah (23588), Ahmad (16526) and al-Thabarani (al-Mu’jam al-Ausath – no: 931). Malik narrated it from Yahya bin Sa‘id, saying: Conveyed to me (balghni) that Khalid bin al-Walid........ We judge this chain sound, being aware of its truncation between Yahya bin Sa‘id and Khalid bin al-Walid because Yahya said “Balaghni” which shows that he received it from Khalid from a number of ways that makes it established. This is an acknowledged way to narrate hadith in the early days of Islam, before 200H. Produced in musnad by Ibn Abi Syaibah and Ahmad and judged sound by Hamzah Ahmad Zain, while in al-Thabarani’s chain, there is a matruk.

[41]             Further, see ‘Abd al-Haq al-Dahlawi as quoted by oleh al-Mubarakfuri in Tuhfah al-Ahwadzi Syarh Jami’ al-Tirmizi, vol 9, pg 356 (Kitab Doa-doa dari Rasulullah, chapter no: 96).

[42]             Further see ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Hasan al-Asy-Shaikh – Fath al-Majid, pg 140-149; Yusuf al-Qaradhawi - Wangsit, Kasyaf, Mimpi, Jimat, Perdukunan dan Pengubatan Spritual dalam Tinjauan Islam, pg 143-144; ‘Abd Allah bin Qasim al-Wasyli – Syarh Usul Isyrin: Menyelami Samudera 20 Prinsip Hasan al-Banna, pg 189-192 and Abu Anas ‘Ali bin Husain – Penyimpangan Terhadap al-Qur‘an (Himpunan Fatwa ‘Abd al-Aziz bin ‘Abd Allah bin Baz, ‘Abd Allah bin Jibrin dan Shalih bin Fauzan), pg 63-89.

[43]             Fath ul Bari, vol 11, pg 353, exegesis of hadith no: 5735.

[44]             His real name is Ahmad bin ‘Abd al-Halim, Abu al-Abbas Taqi al-Din ibn Taimiyah al-Harrani, a great muslim scholar of 8 Hijrah. He was well known to have reanalised many scholarly opinions and rulings before him. Wrote many works, and died in 728H.

[45]             Its mufrad (singular) is Thalsam, i.e. lines or numbers believed to have connections between the stars and the lower world, to get fulfil wishes or repel illness. [al-Mu’jam al-Wasith, quoted from Yusuf al-Qaradhawi, Wangsit, Kasyaf, Mimpi, Jimat, Perdukunan dan Pengubatan Spritual dalam Tinjauan Islam, pg 148]

[46]             Majmu al-Fatawa, vol 19, pg 13.

[47]             Sound: Hadith from Hasan bin ‘Ali radiallahu ‘anhuma, narrated by Ahmad, al-Tirmizi, Nasai, Ibn Hibban and others, rated sound by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Sahih Sunan al-Tirmizi – no: 2518 (Kitab Sifat Kiamat, Chapter.... 60). al-Nawawi includes this hadith in his 40 Ahadith , 11th narration.

[48]             Most of the prophetic incantations, with accompanying explanation of the meanings and ways to practice them, has been listed by Yusuf al-Qaradhawi in his book; Wangsit, Kasyaf, Mimpi, Jimat, Pendukunan dan Pengubatan Spiritual dalam Tinjaun Islam. We would suggest this book to our interested readers to make it as one of the best references concerning this matter.

[49]             Sound: Hadith from Usamah bin Syarik radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated by Ahmad, al-Bukhari (al-Adab al-Mufrad) and others, quoted by al-Suyuti in al-Jami’ al-Sagheir – no: 3271 and judged sound by Nasr al-Din al-Albani and Sahih al-Jami’ al-Sagheir – no: 2930.

[50]             Good: Hadith from Umm Salamah radiallahu ‘anha, narrated by Ahmad (Kitab al-Ashrabah), al-Baihaqi, Ibn Hibban, Abu Ya’la and others, al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani  used this hadith in al-Matolibu al-‘Aliyah – no: 2500 (Bab Menghalang dari penyembuhan penyakit dengan yang haram). There is a weakness in its chain. However the examiner Samir bin Sulaiman, said, the hadith can be upgraded to hasan lighairihi becuase it has been strengthened by a mauquf narration from ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘ud radiallhu ‘anhu, narrated by Ibn Abi Syaibah, Ahmad and others with a sound chain, and by al-Bukhari in way of mu‘allaq.

[51]             Further see Wahbah al-Zuhaili – Konsep Darurat dalam Islam and ‘Abd Allah bin Muhammad al-Thariqy – Fikih Darurat.

[52]             Sound: Hadith frmo Abu Hurairah radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated by al-Bukhari, Muslim and others, see Sahih Muslim – no: 1835 (Kitab Pemimpin, Bab wajib taat kepada pemimpin pada perkara selain maksiat..........).

[53]             Sound: Hadith from ‘Ali bin Abi Talib radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated by al-Bukhari, Muslim and others, see Sahih Muslim – no: 1840.

[54]             Mustafa Sa‘id Khin – Asr al-Ikhtilaf fi al-Qawa‘id al-‘Usuliyyah fi Ikhtilaf al-Fuqaha’ – pg 244, quoted from Muqaranah Mazahib fil Ushul, pg 195-196 by Romli SA. The Arabic text is as follows:

بأن يدل على فرد منتشر في جنسه غير مقيد لفظا بأي قيد يحد من انتشاره.

[55]             Mustafa Sa‘id Khan – Asr al-Ikhtilaf fi al-Qawa‘id, pg 245, with the Arabic text as follows:

دلالة اللفظ على الماهية مقيدة بقيد ما يقلل من شيوعها أو على مدلول معين.

[56]             He is a distinguished scholar in Usul Fiqh of Shafi‘i School. Born in Amid, Turki in 511H and moved to Baghdad, Damsyik and Kaherah to teach and learn. His famous work is al-Ihkam fi Usul al-Ahkam. Imam al-Amidi died in 631H.

[57]             al-Ihkam fi Usul al-Ahkam, vol 3, pg 4, quoted from Metode Tarjih, pg 154 by Muhammad Wafaa.

[58]             Further see al-Nawawi – Syarh Sahih Muslim, vol 6, pg 468, explanation for hadith no: 1835.

[59]             Sound: Hadith from ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar radiallahu ‘anhuma, narrated by al-Bukhari, Abu Daud, al-Nasa’i and others, see Sahih al-Bukhari – no: 2955 (Kitab Jihad, Bab patuh dan taat kepada pemimpin).

[60]             Sound: Hadith from Abu Hurairah radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated by Muslim, see Sahih Muslim – no: 2026 (Kitab Minuman, Bab tidak disukai minum secara berdiri). Hadith on similar issue also narrated by Anas bin Malik and Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri radiallahu ‘anhuma.

[61]             As narrated in no: 5616, Sahih al-Bukhari.

[62]             Sound: Hadith narrated by Ahmad and al-Bukhari, see Sahih al-Bukhari – no: 5615. (Kitab Minuman, Bab minum sambil berdiri).

[63]             Sound: Hadith narrated by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, Muslim and others, see Sahih Muslim – no: 2027 (Kitab Minuman, Bab minum air zam-zam sambil berdiri).

[64]             See al-Nawawi – Syarh Sahih Muslim, vol 7, pg 112 and Ibn al-Qayyim – Zaad al-Ma‘ad , vol 1, pg 109-110 and Fath al-Bari, vol 11, pg 211.

[65]             Sound chain: Narrated by Ahmad with the chain judged sound by Ahmad Syakir in his examination on Musnad Ahmad – no: 11376 (Musnad Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri, haddathana Waki‘i from Yunus bin ‘Amru.......). The hadith also contains scientific truth, in the words of the Prophet (PBUH): And the child (fetus) is not made from every single drop of the liquid (semen) – proven by modern science that a drop of semen contains countless sperms but only one of it will be the precursor of a single child. It is incomprehensible that anybody who lived 1400 years ago can, out of his own accord, attain this knowledge except if we ascribe it to Allah, who send down revelations to His prophet, Muhammad sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam.

[66]             Sound: An excerpt of a lengthy hadith narrated by Ahmad, Muslim and al-Dailami, see Sahih Muslim – no: 1442-1 (Kitab Nikah, Bab Kebolehan bersenggama dengan ibu yang menyusu dan ketidaksukaan kepada ‘azal).

[67]             Coitus interruptus – Translator’s note

[68]             Muhammad al-Jurjani – Kitab al-Ta’rifat, pg 50, quoted from Muqaranah Mazahib fil Ushul, pg 195-196 by Romli SA. Below is the arabic text:

صرف اللفظ عن معناه الظاهر إلى معنى يحتمله إذا كان المحتمل الذي يراه موافقا بالكتاب و السنة.

[69]             ‘Abd al-Karim Zaidan – al-Wajiz fi Usul al-Fiqh, pg 343. Below is the arabic text:

هو حمل اللفظ على غير مدلوله الظاهر منه مع اجتماله له .

[70]             For this matter, any book on usul fiqh is recommended, above being only a summary of some of the specifications outlined in this chapter.

[71]             See Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani’s explanation in Fath al-Bari, vol 10, pg 381 and (Kitab Nikah, Bab al-‘Azal).

[72]             Sound: Narrated by Ahmad, Muslim, Abi Uwanah and al-Baihaqi, see Sahih Muslim – no: 1440-2 (Kitab Nikah, Bab Hukum al-‘Azal).

[73]             He was Mujahid bin Jabr, Abu al-Hajjaj al-Makki, a student of one of the most knowledgeable companion in exegesis of al-Qur‘an, i.e. ‘Abd Allah ibn Abbas radiallahu ‘anhu. He then himself became a renowned mufassirin in his time. He died in104H.

[74]             _ _ _ _: Narrated by ‘Abd al-Razzaq in Musannaf – no: 12570 frmo (Sufyan) al-Thauri, from (Sulaiman) al-‘Amasyh, from Abd al-Malik bin Maisarah, from Mujahid, he said,”we asked.......” . We say, its narrators are thiqah, al-Thauri and al-Amasyh were mudallis narrators from sahih books. Until now, we have not found any proof of al-‘Amasyh hearing from Abd al-Malik. For this reason, we have postponed any judgement on its status. It is also narrated by al-Baihaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra – no: 14099 with the same chain of narrators, but he did not comment on it. Ibn Rejab al-Hanbali in Jami’ al-Ulum wa al-Hikam, pg 61 (syarah hadis no: 4) narrated the same hadith from ‘Ali bin Abi Talib radiallahu ‘anhu, but Ibn Rejab did not present a complete chain. Hence we are yet to be certain on this hadith though it can be a syawahid, or supporter, to back Ibn ‘Abbas’s narration as above.

[75]             Among those who judged it makruh or reprehensible was al-Ghazali in Ihya’ Ulum al-Deen (edisi terj: Jiwa Agama), vol 2, pg 431-436 and al-Nawawi in Syarh Sahih Muslim, vol 5, pg 356. See also Zaad al-Ma‘ad , vol 8, pg 140 by Ibn al-Qayyim and Nail al-Authar, vol 4, pg 282-286 by al-Syaukani. Moreover, there is a specific book by Abdel Rahim Omran to discuss the matter: Family Planning in the Legacy of Islam, which we recommend.

[76]             Sound: An excerpt of a lengthier hadith by Ma’qil bin Yasar radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated by Ahmad, Abu Daud, al-Nasai, al-Baihaqi and others, rated sound by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Irwa’ al-Ghaleel – no: 1784.

[77]             Good: Hadith from Jabir bin ‘Abd Allah radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated by al-Daruquthni in al-Afraad, quoted by al-Suyuti in Jamii’-us-Sagheir – no: 4044 (see also no: 9147), judging it ‘good’. This is agreed by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Sahih Jamii’-us-Sagheir – no: 3289.

[78]             Sound: An excerpt of a lengthier hadith of Abu Hurairah radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated by Ahmad, Muslim, Ibn Majah and others, see Sahih Muslim – no: 2664 (Kitab al-Qadar, Bab pada kekuatan dan menghindar kelemahan........).

[79]             Sound: Hadis mutawatir by  Ahmad, al-Daruquthni, Ibn Majah and others, quoted and judged good by al-Suyuti in Jamii’-us-Sagheir – no: 9899 and rated sound by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Irwa’ al-Ghaleel – no: 896.

[80]             Sound: Hadith from Abu Talha al-Ansari, narrated by Muslim and others, see Sahih Muslim – no: 2106-5.

[81]             Sound: Narrated by Ahmad, Muslim and al-Thabarani (al-Mu’jam al-Kabir), see Sahih Muslim – no: 2440.

[82]             See Halal dan Haram dalam Islam, pg 109-116 by Yusuf al-Qaradhawi.

[83]             Sound: Hadith from ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Umar radiallahu ‘anhuma, narrated by al-Bukhari, Muslim and others, see Sahih al-Bukhari – no: 645 (Kitab Adzan, Bab Keutamaan Solat Jamaah).

[84]             Sound: Hadith from Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri radiallahu anhu, narrated by al-Bukhari, Muslim and others, see Sahih al-Bukhari – no: 646.

[85]             Further see Fath al-Bari, vol 2, pg 346-348.

[86]             Sound Chain: Hadith from Hafsah radiallahu ‘anha, narrated by Ahmad, al-Tohawi, al-Darimi, al-Daruquthni, Abu Daud, Ibn Majah and others, above is the text of Abu Daud, mentioned by al-Baghawi in Syarh al-Sunnah – no: 1744 and its chain rated sound by Syu‘aib al-Arna’uth. About its chain, see al-Daruquthni’s explanation – Sunan Daruquthni, vol 2, pg 152, al-Zayla‘i – Nasab ar-Rayah, vol 2, pg 525-527 and Husain Salam Asad – Sunan al-Darimi, vol 2, pg 1058-1060.

[87]             Sound: Abbreviation of the hadith narrated by Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Daud, al-Tirmizi and others with slightly different texts, see Sahih Muslim – no: 1154-B (Kitab Puasa, Bab Dibolehkan berpuasa sunat dengan niat .........).

[88]             Further see  ‘Abd al-Majid Muhammad Ismail al-Susuh – Minhaj al-Taufiq wa al-Tarjih baina Mukhtalaf al-Hadis, pg 231-233.

[89]             Good: Hadith narrated by Abad bin Hamid, al-Darimi, Abu Daud, Abu Ya’la, Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Hibban, al-Baihaqi and al-Hakim. The transmitters are thiqah (trustworthy), as acknowledged by Husain Salim Asad in his revision on Musnad Abu Ya’la, vol 4, pg 65, no: 2084 and Syu‘aib al-Arna’uth in his revision on Sahih Ibn Hibban, vol 8, pg 165, no: 3372. Only one of its narrators: Muhammad bin Ishaq, a mudalis. I rated this hadith good due to a supporting hadith:

لا صدقة إلا عن ظهر غنى.

There is no charity but from the excesses. [Sound chain: hadith from Abu Hurairah, narrated by Ahmad and its chain judged sound by Ahmad Syakir in his revision on Musnad Ahmad – no: 7155. (Musnad Abu Hurairah, haddathana Ya’la bin Ubaid…..). Also mentioned by al-Bukhari in the form of mu‘allaq in his Sahih, (Kitab al-Wasiat, Bab Takwil ayat 11 surah al-Nisaa’).]

Ibn Hazm supported this in al-Muhalla, vol 8, pg 13-14 when a poor man gave (in charity) one of his two cloths, but the Prophet ordered it to be returned to him. Further in this see Sahih Ibn Hibban – no: 2505 a hadith judged good by Syu‘aib al-Arna’uth and Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Sahih Sunan al-Nasa’i – no: 2535 (Kitab al-Zakat, Bab Apabila seseorang bersedekah, dan dia memerlukannya, apakah boleh mengambil balik).

[90]             Good: Hadith narrated by Abad bin Hamid, Ahmad (Fadha‘il al-Sahabah), Abu Nu‘aim, Ibn Abi ‘Ashim, Abu Daud, al-Tirmizi, al-Hakim, al-Darimi and al-Baihaqi, all of which is from Hashim bin Sa‘ad and he is disputed upon. This hadith is rated good by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Sahih Sunan Tirimizi – no: 3675T and ‘Abd al-Salam bin Muhammad bin ‘Umar in his revision on al-Mustadrak – no: 1550.

[91]             See al-Sunnah sebagai sumber Iptek dan Peradaban, pg 164 dan seterusnya by Yusuf al-Qaradhawi.

[92]             Sound Chain: Narrated only by Ahmad and its chain rated sound by Ahmad Syakir in Musnad Ahmad – no: 7054. (Musnad ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Amr, haddathana Musa bin Daud.......).

[93]             Sound: Hadith from Abu Hurairah radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated by al-Bukhari, Abu Daud and al-Nasa’i, quoted by al-Suyuti in al-Jami’ al-Sagheir – no: 4021.

[94]             He is Hamd bin Muhammad bin Ibrahim, Abu Sulaiman al-Khittabi, a great figure from Afghanistan. He moved to Makkah, Basrah, Baghdad and Nishapur for teaching and learning purposes. Amongst his students that are prominent are Imam al-Hakim, who arranged the book al-Mustadrak and his most renowned book of his own production was Ma‘alim al-Sunan, a discussion on Sunan Abu Daud. Imam al-Khattabi died in the year 388H.

[95]             A summary of al-Khitabi’s explanation, see Aun al-Ma’bud Syarh Sunan Abu Daud, vol 5, pg 69-70 (Syarh bagi Bab “Seorang lelaki yang mengeluarkan semua hartanya” , in Kitab al-Zakat).

[96]             To learn about how these criteria are formed, see Peran Nilai dan Moral dalam Perekonomian Islam, pg 181 – 187 & 194 by Yusuf al-Qaradhawi.

[97]             Sound: Hadith from Abu Hurairah radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated by al-Shafi‘i, al-Bukhari, Muslim, Ibn Hibban, al-Baihaqi and others, see Sahih al-Bukhari – no: 1088. (Kitab menyingkatkan solat, Bab panjang perjalanan yang membolehkan solat disingkatkan......).

[98]             Sound: Hadith from ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar radiallahu ‘anhuma, narrated by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, Muslim and others, see Sahih Muslim – no: 1338 (KitabHajj, Bab Musafir seorang wanita........).

[99]             For each of these categories, see the explanation by Yusuf al-Qaradhawi in Pelaksanaan Syari‘ah Islam: Sesuai pada setiap tempat dan masa, pg 140-165.

[100]            I’lam al-Muwaqi‘in, pg 459 (vol 3, chapter 1).

[101]            Yusuf al-Qaradhawi – Fikih Taisir: Metode Praktis Mempelajari Fikih, pg 93.

[102]            Especially the mujtahid from Shafi‘i school of thought, refer to any of their books of jurisprudence in the chapters of Hajj and Umrah, the ruling of women observing Hajj and Umrah without a mahram.

[103]            There are no shortcuts or any other ways but to acquire knowledge, it is recommended for everyone to read the books of Yusuf al-Qaradhawi in this chapter, amongst them: al-Makdhal li Dirasat al-Syari’ah Islamiyah and al-Siyasah al-Syar‘iyyah fi Dhau‘i Nushuh al-Syari’ah wa Maqashiduha. Both have been translated into Malay as Membumikan Syari‘at Islam and Pedoman Bernegara dalam Perspektif Islam.

[104]            Sound: An excerpt of the hadith narrated by Ibn Abi Syaibah, Muslim, Abu Daud and others, see Sahih Muslim – no: 1218 (Kitab Hajj, Bab Hajj Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam).

[105]            Sound: Narrated by Malik bin Anas in al-Muwattha’ – no: 1619 (Kitab al-Jami’, Bab Larangan memastikan Takdir). Malik said when writing this narration: Balghni………which means“it has been conveyed to me” (or from the notes of his student: From Malik, as been conveyed to him………). This word has specific meaning in the early ages of Islam (before 200H) noting that the person has received that particular hadith from a number of tabi‘in (followers), from a handful of companions through various chains until that a particular chain is not necessary. Further see Qadi ‘Iyadh Tartib al-Madarik, vol 1, pg 136; Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr – al-Tamhid, vol 1, pg 34; al-Zarqani – Syarh al-Muwattha’, vol 4, pg 307 and Hassath binti ‘Abd al-‘Aziz Sagheir – Hadis Mursal baina Maqbul wa Mardud, vol 2, pg 456-470.

                Hasan ‘Ali al-Saqqaf in his book Shalat Bersama Nabi s.a.w. (translated edition from Sahih Sifat Solat Nabi), pg 269-275 maintained that this hadith is maudhu’ (fabricated). Somewhere in the chain, it has a narrator who has been accused as a liar, and its meaning is not being supported by any other hadith. He wrote: In truth, the sound and undisputed hadith is the one that ends with “wa ahli baiti” (as in Speech C – writer). The version that ends with “wa sunnati” (as in Speech B) errs in its meaning and chain.

                It seems to us that al-Saqqaf was a bit hasty in making this judgement because he checked but only a few chain of narrations and left some others untouched, especially the ones that are contained in the books Musannaf, Mu’jam and Tarikh (history). What is worse was his decision to totally ignore the chain presented by Malik in his renowned book al-Muwattha’ on the grounds that it has no chian, when in reality al-Saqqaf failed to recognize the science of narrating hadith especially with Malik bin Anas and his contemporary hadith scholars.

                al-Saqqaf’s second mistake, which is fatal to him is when he maintained that the meaning carried by the hadith is in itself batil (untrue). Nevertheless if one looks into the various verses of the Qur’an and the traditions of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wassalam, one will in no time notice the abundance of messages that orders the nation (ummah) to obey, follow and hold to al-Qur’an and al-Sunnah (tradition). To the readers who wonder about which verses and tradition is refered here, please refer to any books in the domestic market dwelling on Sunnah and Bid’ah. In any one of those books, one will find a collection of Quranic verses and prophetic traditions that I’m alluding to. It suffices that I present in this book one of the many supporting verses from al-Qur’anul Karim, and duly observe the directive to invariably follow al-Qur’an and the Sunnah, plus the warning of going astray to those who reject them:

                It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allâh and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision. And whoever disobeys Allâh and His Messenger, he has indeed strayed into a plain error. [al-Ahzaab 33:36]

                From al-Saqqaf’s analysis we learn an important point, that is the manifestation of taqiyyah (hypocricy) in the person of ‘Ali al-Saqqaf who has denied it for so long. It is then proven that he is a Shiite, who guised and pretended as one of Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama‘ah. Moreover, in the introduction to this same book that he wroet, he has proudly connected his predecessors with Ahli Bait (the family) of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wassalam through Ja’far al-Sadiq (148H) bin Muhammad al-Baqir (114H) bin ‘Ali Zainal Abidin (95H) bin Hussain (61H) bin ‘Ali (40H) bin Abi Talib, radiallahu ‘anhum.

We the people pf al-Sunnah wa al-Jama‘ah do not have any issue against Ahli Bait Rasulullah, in fact above everyone, we respect and honour them. However we do not feel the same towards some lay people who have unabashedly claimed themselves as part of the family of Rasulullah when they possess a temperament, morality and character which are unduly and negative, even reprimanded by al-Qur’an and the sound Hadith. Contrary to what they claim, these are the very people that make false accusations towards the family of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wassalam- we seek refuge with Allah Azza waJalla from being part of them.

It is highly hoped that respected readers are aware and careful when encountering such people. We should be cautious and thoughtful, not having ill-thoughts because not all Shiite are the same. Nevertheless it has to be communicated here that the attribute called taqiyyah is not only permissible but also common among them, worse, to them it is next to compulsory in any circumstances. Refer to the book Gen Syi‘ah: Tinjauan Sejarah, Penyimpangan Aqidah  dan Konspirasi Yahudi, pg 151-160 by Mamduh Farhan al-Buhairi where the concept of taqiyyah is thoroughly discussed based on the Shiites’ own sources.

[106]            Sound: Part of a longer hadith narrated by Muslim in Sahih Muslim – no: 2408. (Kitab Keutamaan Para Shabat, Bab Keutamaan ‘Ali bin Abi Talib radiallahu ‘anhu). Also narrated by al-Tirmizi, al-Thabarani and others as explained and rated by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Silsilah Hadis Sahih, vol 4, pg 355-361, no: 1761.

                This same hadith is famous with some other narrations which are only slightly different, but one of them means: O mankind, I leave unto you, (something which) when you hold on to, you will never go astray: the Book of Allah and my household and descendents (Ahli Bait). This version is specifically with the words you will never go astray as narrated by Ahmad, al-Tirmizi, al-Thabarani and others, and there is weakness in its chain due to the narrator who was from Kufah, Iraq. The above Hadith with this additional words has been discussed meticulously by ‘Ali Ahmad al-Salus in Ensiklopedi Sunnah Syiah, vol 1, pg 113-131. Some group of people make a baseless claim that the hadith was narrated by more than 20 companions, because they fail to distinguish between the many versions that exist.

[107]            That is, the Prophet started off his journey from Medina on the 25th of Zulkaedah (al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, vol 5, pg 111) and arrived in Makkah on 4th of Zulhijjah (Sahih al-Bukhari  no: 1080) and stayed there for 10 full days penuh excluding the traveling days (Sahih al-Bukhari – no: 1081). During and within the very 10 days the Prophet has fulfilled his ritual rites required in the Hajj. Returning from Mina on the 13th of Zulhijjah, the Prophet stayed in Makkah for 3 days (Sahih Muslim – no: 1352-B) before his departure back to Medina. It is estimated that he reached his destination after 10 days, and this is consistent with the duration that he took to travel between Medina and Makkah in the first journey.

[108]            For further reference on the books of hadith, the Chapter of Hajj see for example Jami’ al-Usul, vol 3, pg 1-400 by Ibn Athir.

[109]            See the full text of this speech by Jabir bin ‘Abd Allah in Sahih Muslim, vol 2, pg 240 and further. This is the actual speech by Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam he gave at Arafah on the 9th of Zulhijjah. This text can also be refered from Sunan Abu Daud – no: 1825, Sahih Ibn Khuzaimah – no: 2809 and Sahih Ibn Hibban – no: 3944.

Most Islamic books and diary present Speech B as the Prophet’s khutbah Nabi at Arafah on the 9th of Zulhijjah. This reference and quoting is plainly inaccurate. Refer to the explanation by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in his revision of Muhammad al-Ghazali’s book entitled Fiqh-us-Seerah, pg 455, fn 2. Also Akram Diya’ al-‘Umari – Madinan Society at The Time of The Prophet, vol 2, pg 233-234.

[110]            Siyar A’lam al-Nubula: Sirah al-Nabawiyah, vol 2, pg 295.

[111]            See the full text of Speech C in Sahih Muslim – no: 2408.

[112]            See Ibn Kathir – al-Bidayah wa Nihayah, vol 5, pg 208 and further; Akram Diya’ al-‘Umari – Madinan Society at The Time of The Prophet, vol 2, pg 234. Also any other celebrated historical books. In books of hadith, refer to al-Mubarakfuri – Tuhfat al-Ahwazi, vol 10, pg 144-149.

[113]            Undoubtedly Allah will only fulfil this promise when the muslim nation as a whole has developed a pure faith and does good deeds, not causing chaos or creating confusion as is seen today. Our situation today is not because the absence of an imam but instead, our dispossession of knowledge.

[114]            Sound: Hadith from Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated by Ahmad, Muslim, al-Darimi and others, see Sahih Muslim – no: 3004. (Kitab Zuhud dan Raqa‘iq, Bab Kedudukan hadis dan penulisannya).

[115]            Sound: Hadith narrated by al-Tirmizi, al-Darimi and Ibn Abd al-Barr, judged sound by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Sahih Sunan al-Tirmizi – no: 2665. (Kitab Ilmu, Bab Makruhnya menulis ilmu (hadis) ; also rated sound by Husain Salim Asad in Musnad al-Darimi – no: 465. Mustafa Azami in Hadis Nabawi dan Sejarah Kodifikasinya, pg 113 has rated this hadith as weak through the narrator Abdurrahman bin Zaid bin Aslam as produced by al-Khatib al-Baghdadi in Taqyid al-Ilmi, pg 32. Nonetheless this hadith is also narrated by al-Tirmizi and al-Darimi from Zaid bin Aslam, but without going through his son Abdurrahman who is certainly rated weak by some hadith critics and scholars.

[116]            Good: An excerpt from a lengthy hadith from 3 chain of narrations:

[1] From Abu Hurairah radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated by Ahmad in al-Musnad – no: 11034. (Musnad Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri, haddathana Ishaq bin ‘Isa) from Abdurrahman bin Zaid bin Aslam and he is a narrator judged weak by the majority. Hamzah Ahmad Zain elevates this hadith to the level good because its meaning is similar to the one narrated by Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri produced by Muslim in his sahih no: 3004 as reproduced above (Hadith A). See also Musnad Ahmad – no: 11027.

[2] From ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar radiallahu ‘anhuma, narrated by al-Thabarani in al-Mu’jam al-Ausath – no: 7514 with a slightly different text through Zaid bin Aslam without his son Abdurrahman, however in this chain of narrators there is Isa bin Maimun al-Madani and he is weak. See al-Kamil fi Dhu‘afa’ al-Rijal – perawi no: 1388.

[3] From ‘Abd Allah bin Amru radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated by Ibn ‘Asakir in Tarikh al-Damsyq, vol 62, pg 44-45 also with a slightly different text, not through Zaid bin Aslam, but still is through Isa bin Maimun and as we know he is weak.

                All the three chains of narrations as above are weak and the texts differ slightly from each other. But we cannot deny their one common point, that is the words of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam to his companions who were writing hadith: “Writings in the book of Allah ?” followed by some reminders to preserve the pristine book of Allah, that is al-Qur‘anul Karim. Therefore we rate this hadith as hasan li-ghairi based on 2 chains above that help strengthen one another.

[117]            Weak chain: Hadith narrated by Abu Daud, with weak chain because Muthalib has never met Zaid. See Mustafa Azami – Hadis Nabawi dan Sejarah Kodifikasinya, pg 114-115 and Nasr al-Din al-Albani - Daif Sunan Abu Daud – no: 3647.  (Kitab Ilmu, Bab Tentang menulis ilmu). We do not seek to elevate this hadith to good even when its meaning resembles hadith A & B. The reason being, this hadith explains on something that happened in the time of the companions, after the demise of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam. In this same era/time, there are numerous other narrations that explain the activity of writing ahadith. Narrations like A & B is specifically directed to the days of Rasulullah when they lack paper and the companions started writing ahadith on the same sheet as al-Qur‘an is written. During the rule of Muawiyah as depicted by hadith D as above, paper is abundance and the companions at that time need not to write hadith in the same sheet as al-Qur‘an.

[118]            Sound: An excerpt of a longer hadith by Abu Hurairah radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated by al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Daud and others, see Sahih Muslim – no: 1355. (Kitab Hajj, Bab Kesucian Kota Mekah dan larangan serta tegahan memburu di dalamnya........).

[119]            Sound: Hadith narrated by Ahmad, Abu Daud, al-Hakim and others, judged sound by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Silsilah Hadis Sahih – no: 1532. See also Sunan Abu Daud – no: 3646. (Kitab Ilmu, Bab Tentang menulis ilmu).

[120]            Sound: An excerpt of a longer hadith narrated by al-Bukhari, Muslim and others, see Sahih Muslim – no: 0114. (Kitab Ilmu, Bab Tentang Penulisan Ilmu); also Sahih Muslim – no: 1637.

                We feel obliged to add here that when Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam couldn’t get his important words put down to writing by no means it remains hidden or cannot be comprehended by his followers. As the explanation given by Ibn ‘Abbas in another narration produced by Muslim in his sahih– no: 1637, this is a scene shot of what happened on a Thursday. The Prophet soon died on the Monday. Within the 4 remaining days he had, Rasulullah has regained some of his strength, recovering from the bad state, and has spoken many times to his companions, as being narrated in many books of hadith. Moreover Rasulullah himself has been to the mosque to lead the prayer. Therefore, the important message that Rasulullah wanted to give earlier was instead delivered now, before the Monday that he was taken to Allah. The action and doing of ‘Umar radiallahu ‘anhu stopping Rasulullah from writing it down must not be interpreted as him being afraid or wanting to hide something, but purely because of his sympathy towards Rasulullah; he hates to add any burden to him who was already in a critical condition at that time.

The Shi’ites say, the important message Rasulullah was about to convey in the above hadith was about the election of ‘Ali bin Abi Talib radiallahu ‘anhu as his replacement and successor, as the Caliph for the Muslims.  This is a total absurdity and deserves only rejection because had that been the important message Rasulullah wanted to get out, he had after that had many other opportunities to do so, before or after the above incident. However it is clear that there is not one narration that explains such appointment, be it in the books of hadith from Ahli Sunnah or even Shi‘ite. [See the footnotes by Mahmoud Martaji in Sahih Muslim (English trans), vol 3A, pg 85-86.]

What is more, had Allah Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala wanted to appoint ‘Ali as the Caliph for the Muslim nation, He would have legislated such appointment clear and unambiguously, either through al-Qur‘an or the words of His Messenger Muhammad sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam. We all know that there isn’t a single verse of the Qur‘an or the traditions of Rasulullah that talks about the appointment of Ali, apart from some traditions that its meanings have been manipulated by the Shi‘ites to justify their doctrine on ‘Ali’s right to succession, despite the majority of scholars have not understood it as so. In the case of the above hadith specifically, had Rasulullah truly wanted to appoint ‘Ali to be the Caliph for the Muslims, as an ordainment from Allah, it surely will have happened without much hurdles and obstacles. It is impossible that Allah’s will to make someone a Caliph for the Muslim nation is stopped or changed merely because of a man’s opposition, and that man is ‘Umar bin al-Khattab. This is utterly impossible, it is incomprehensible. This is what we mean when we used the phrase manipulation of the hadith by the Shi‘ites.

[121]            Good: Hadith narrated by al-Tirmizi through al-Khalil bin Murratah and he is regarded as weak. See al-Mubarakfuri - Tuhfat al-Ahwazi, vol 7, pg 357 (explanation on hadith no: 2666) and Nasr al-Din al-Albani - Daif Sunan al-Tirmizi – no: 2666 (Kitab Ilmu, Bab Rukhsah Tentangnya (the qualification to write hadith). We are in the opinion that this hadith can be elevated to the level good because although the chain is weak, the meaning is still vindicated and supported by other ahadith like hadith E & F. This hadith is also said to be from Anas bin Malik radiallahu ‘anhu, narrated b al-Thabarani and al-Bazzar through Khasib bin Jahdar but he is a liar, as told by al-Haithami in Majma’ al-Zawa‘id – no: 682 & 683. See also al-Mu’jam al-Ausath li al-Thabarani  – no: 2825.

[122]            Good: Hadith from Anas bin Malik and ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Amr radiallahu ‘anhuma, also in mauquf form, from ‘Umar al-Khattab and ‘Abd Allah ibn Abbas radiallahu ‘anhuma, all of it quoted and collected by Ibn Abd al-Bar in Jami’ Bayan al-Ilmi wa Fadhlihi, vol 1, pg 306-319. All of the above narrations have its own chain, but all of it has weaknesses. However, for the same reason they support and strengthen each otehr until that Abu al-Ashbal al-Zahiri said– revisor of Jamii’ al-Bayan – that this hadith affords the level ‘good’.

[123]        Good: Hadith recorded by al-Thabarani in al-Mu’jam al-Kabir – no: 4410 and Khatib al-Baghdadi in Taqyid al-Ilmi, pg 72. The chain is weak because one of the narrators has some fault in his memory, as explained by al-Haithami in Majma’ al-Zawa‘id – no: 677. See also Kanz al-Ummal – no: 29222 and the book Ajaj al-Khatib – Hadits Nabi Sebelum Dibukukan, pg 346. We are in the opinion that this hadith can be elevated to good despite its weak chain, because its meaning is approved and supported by other ahadith like the hadith E & F.

[124]            See Tafsir Ibn Kathir, vol 1, pg 11-12 (chapter Muqaddimah).

[125]            Mustafa Azami – Studies in Hadith Methodology and Literature, pg 28; Muhammad Hamidullah – Sahifah Hamman ibn Munabbih, pg 104-106. See also some other opinions and arguments as quoted by Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani in the introduction to Fath al-Bari, also by Ajaj al-Khatib in - Hadits Nabi Sebelum Dibukukan, pg 348-351.

[126]            Weak chain: Part of a lengthier atsar as recorded by Ibn Abi Syaibah in his al-Musannaf – no:2991: haddathana Ibn ‘Aliyah (Ismail bin Ibrahim bin Maqsum), from Khalid (bin Ma’dan), from Abi al-Mutawakkili (‘Ali bin Daud), we asked Abu Sa‘id ....... The narrators are all trusted except Khalid bin Ma’dan – he is an irsal and a mudallis. Further, see Taqrib al-Tahzib, vol 1, pg 263, perawi no: 1684 and others. This is quoted here only for the purpose of strengthening and explanation.

[127]            Sound: Recorded by al-Bukhari, al-Tirmizi and others, see Sahih al-Bukhari – no: 0113. (Kitab Ilmu, Bab Tentang Penulisan Ilmu).

[128]            See al-Nawawi - Syarh Sahih Muslim, vol 9, pg 244 (exegesis of hadith no: 3004) and Ajaj al-Khatib - Hadits Nabi Sebelum Dibukukan, pg 344-369 for the ahadith from amongst the companions and followers of the companions who chose to write or not to write the ahadith.

[129]            Sound chain: Hadith recorded by Abu Uwanah (2019), Abu Daud (989), al-Nasa’i (al-Sunan al-Kubra 1193 & al-Sunan al-Mujtaba 1243) and al-Baihaqi (2786). al-Nawawi said in Majmu’ Syarh al-Muhazzab, vol 3, pg 417: the chain is sound. Syu‘aib al-Arna’uth said in his revision of Syarh al-Sunnah al-Baghawi, vol 3, pg 178: the chain is strong. Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Daif Sunan Abu Daud – no: 989 (Kitab Solat, Bab Isyarat ketika Tasyahud) judges it as syadz (irregular), that is a hadith narratd by trustworthy narrators but its meaning has some irregularities if compared to other ahadith (e.g. Hadith B) narrated by some better narrators. We opine that, the chain of this hadith is strong as in the opinion of al-Arna’uth and al-Nawawi. As far as the difference in meaning is concerned, it is not a problem as long as both sides of narrations are authentic, because they can still be practiced, if God so willed.

                Abu Ubaidah Masyhurah bin Hasan in his book Koreksi Total Ritual Solat, pg 169-170 narrates that this same hadith is also being recorded by some other imam, among them is in Sahih Muslim – no: 579, without the addition “...and without moving it”. We opine that this is not a problem because if this addition is authentic, it only serves to complete the version recorded in Sahih Muslim. Abu Ubaidah also said, in the narration“...and without moving it” there is a narrator along the chian named Muhammad bin Ajalan, whose credibility is disputed. We say, this is absolutely true but what that is strengthening him is more established than what is reducing him. In fact, Ibn Ajalan is one of the narrators approved by Imam Muslim. Moreover, this narration is much strengthened by ‘Amr bin Dinar (al-Sunan al-Kubra – no: 2786-2, Syarh al-Sunnah – no: 676-2) and it is rated authentic by al-Nawawi as mentioned by Syu‘aib al-Arna’uth in his revision on Syarh al-Sunnah al-Baghawi, vol 3, pg 178. We would like to add, that Abu Ubaidah did not totally reject this hadith, that he chose to settle in a middle way, that is both narrations are applicable.

[130]            Sound chain: A part of a lengthier hadith by Ahmad (18772) and the chain is jusdged sahih by Ahmad Hamzah Zain, al-Darimi (1397) and the chain judged sound Husain Salim Asad, Ibn Khuzaimah (714) and the chian is rated sound by Mustafa Azami, al-Nasa’i and also by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Sahih Sunan al-Nasa’i – no: 1267, al-Baihaqi (2787) and by al-Nawawi in Majmu’ Syarh al-Muhazzab, vol 3, pg 417 and Ibn Hibban (1860): Syu‘aib al-Arna’uth said: the chain is strong, its narrators are all authentic narrators but Kulaib bin Shahab – he is good. Abu ‘Ashim Nabil bin Hashim al-Ghumari said in Fath ul-Manan: Syarh wa Tahqiq al-Musnad al-Jamii’ al-Darimi, vol 6, pg 368: The chain of this hadith is in line with the requirements of an authentic hadith but for Kulaib bin Shahab, he is a narrator from the four books, a righteous man.

Elsewhere, this hadith is also recorded by Ibn Jarud (208) and al-Thabarani (al-Kabir 22/35).

                Syu‘aib al-Arna’uth further explains that this hadith with the addition “...I saw him moving it...” is syadz that is inconsistent if compared to other narrations that only mention “... signals with his index finger...” . We say, this is not a problem, in fact both of them are acceptable. al-Arna’uth also said, the narration of Wa‘il bin Hujur is also recorded by other imam without the addition “...I saw him miving it...”. We say that this too doesn’t make a problem because this addition is also authentic and sound from the inspection on its chain, and it too complements other narrations.

[131]            Sound: Part of the hadith ofMalik bin Hawarith radiallahu ‘anhu, recorded by al-Bukhari, Muslim and others, see Talkish al-Habir fi Takhrij Ahadith ar-Rafi‘i al-Kabir – no: 284 (Kitab al-Solat, Bab Azan).

[132]            Sound: An excerpt of a longer hadith narrated by al-Tirmizi and judged sound by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Sahih Sunan al-Tirmizi – no: 293 (Bab Solat dari Rasulullah, Bab Cara duduk Tasyahud, Bab Lain tentang masalah (Tasyahud). Hadith with different text but in essence carry the same guidance and sitting specifications narrated by other companions and booked by other hadith scholars.

[133]            Above is the middle and moderate opinion amongst the arguments compiled on this matter. As Muhammad bin Ismail al-San‘ani (1182H) mentioned: It is indeed apparent that we could opt to any of these methods. [Subul al-Salam, vol 1, pg 89]. In this matter there is a difference of opinion between scholars of knowledge, independent of whether or not they ascribe to the same school of thought. Further see any book on fiqh and explanation on ahadith, amongst them being: Syamsul al-Haq al-‘Azim Abadi – Aun al-Ma’bud Syarh Sunan Abu Daud, vol 3, pg 207-208; ‘Ali al-Qari – Mirfah al-Mafatih Syarh Misykat al-Masabih, vol 2, pg 633 and al-Mubarakfuri (1353H)- Tuhfah al-Ahwazi Syarh Jami’ al-Tirmizi, vol 2, pg 158-160.

                Ibn ‘Arabi al-Maliki (534H) in ‘Aridhotu al-Ahwazi Syarh Jamii’ al-Tirmizi, vol 1, pg 329 seems to reject the opinion that supports moving the finger in tasyahud. We say, actually Ibn al-‘Arabi reject those who do so while thinking it could scare the devils, and not because they follow the example of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam.

[134]            Weak chain: Atsar narrated by Ahmad, al-Thabarani and al-Baihaqi, above is the text by al-Thabarani. There has been some discussions on its chain: al-Thabarani recorded it briefly in al-Mu’jam al-Kabir – no: 4176 and al-Haithami said in Majma’ al-Zawa‘id – no: 2843: The narrators are trustworthy. However, the complete narration in Musnad Ahmad – no: 16525 and al-Sunan al-Kubra li al-Baihaqi – no: 2793 found an unknown narrator in its chian, that is a man from the people of Madinah who narrated from Khifaf bin Ima’ al-Ghiffari. Therefore the revisor of Musnad Ahmad: Hamzah Ahmad Zaid siad: Its chain is weak. Offered as an explanation on the chapter of the indication of index finger in tasyahud.

[135]            Further see our book: Panduan Ibadah dalam Musafir Penerbangan, pg 134.

[136]            Amongst them, see Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (505H) – al-Wasit fi al-Mazhab, vol 1, pg 236 and al-Nawawi (676H) - Majmu’ Syarh al-Muhazzab, vol 3, pg 301.

[137]            Mausu‘ah al-Imam al-Shafi‘i: Kitab al-Umm, vol 2, pg 187, no: 1441 (Kitab al-Solat, Bab Duduk apabila bangkit dari sujud dan duduk .........).

[138]            He is Imam Ahmad bin al-Husain bin Ali, Abu Bakar al-Baihaqi, born in Baihaq, Nisapur in the year 384H. An al-Hafiz in the field of hadith, master of jurisprudence and a thinker who learnt from more than 100 teachers. Among his greatest contribution is to collect and book all the ahadith and jurisprudential opinons of al-Shafi‘i. Most of his works are still being published until today. He died in the year 458H.

[139]            al-Sunan al-Kubra, vol 2, pg 189 (Bab tentang riwayat bahawa diisyarat dengannya dan tidak menggerak-gerakkannya)

[140]            Ma’refah al-Sunan wa al-Athar, vol 3, pg 52-53 (Kitab Solat, Bab Bagaimana kedudukan tangan ketika Tasyahud).

[141]            He is Imam Ibrahim bin ‘Ali bin Yusuf, Abu Ishaq al-Syairazi a mujtahid of Shafi‘i school of thought who was famous in the 5th century of hijrah. His works are being made reference to the Shafi‘i school of thought until today, one of the most well-known being al-Tanbih, al-Muhazzab, al-Luma’, Tabaqat al-Fuqaha, al-Nukat fi al-Khilaf dan al-Tabsirah. He died on 476H and subsequently buried in Baghdad.

[142]            al-Muhazzab, vol 1, pg 263.

[143]            He is Imam ‘Ali bin Muhammad bin Habib al-Basri, born in Basrah in the year 364H. A renowned scholar of fiqh in Shafi’i school of thought from his period to this era. He produced many work but not all of it is transmitted to us today. Among the greatest and most important that we have today is the book al-Hawi al-Kabir that explains the jurisprudence of al-Shafi’i himslef, narrated by one of the students of al-Shafi’i by the name al-Muzani. He died in Baghdad in the year 450H.

[144]            Better known by the name Imam al-Muzani, his real name is Ismail bin Yahya bin Ismail, from a well-known sect among the Arabs at that time, Muzainah. A narrator of hadith, scholar of jurisprudence and a very prolific debater. Once it was said about him: Even if he debates with the devil he will definitely win. He studied under al-Shafi’i for a long time until it was taken among the general public that he was his accomplice, company and student who meant most to al-Shafi’i. Moreover he was buried close to the grave of al-Shafi’i when he died in 264H.

[145]            al-Mawardi – al-Hawi al-Kabir Syarh Mukhtasar al-Muzani, vol 2, pg 132-133.

[146]            He is Imam al-Husain bin Mas‘ud bin Muhammad, Abu Muhammad Muhyi al-Sunna al-Baghawi, born in Bagha, Parsi in the year 436H. A scholar of Quranic exegeis, hadith and jurisprudence, well known from his work Syarh al-Sunnah which compiles the ahadith on jurisprudential matters and the opinions of the 4 great imam on the same matter. Died in the year 510H.

[147]            Syarh al-Sunnah, vol 3, pg 177.

[148]            His full name is Imam Muhammad bin Ismail bin Solah al-Kahlany al-San‘ani, a hadith scholar, scholar of jurisprudence and jurisprudential investigator from Yaman who was famous in the 12th century of Hijrah. Among his most celebrated work which is already translated is Subul al-Salam which is an exegesis to the compilation of ahadith related to jurisprudential matter as contained in Bulugh al-Maram by Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani. Other than that, he also produced Taudhih al-Afkar li ma‘ani Tanqih al-Anzhor in usul hadith, Ijabatul al-Sail, Syarh Bughyatul al-Amal in usul fiqh and al-Uddah Syarh al-Umdat li Ibn Daqiq al-‘Id in fiqh. He died in the year 1182H.

[149]            Subul al-Salam Syarh Bulugh al-Maram, vol 1, pg 189.

[150]            He is Muhammad ‘Abd al-Rahman bin ‘Abd al-Rahim al-Mubarakfuri, a renowned hadith scholar from the Indian continent. His most famous work is Tuhfah al-Ahwazi which is an exegesis of Sunan al-Tirmizi. It has become a standard reference to those who seek to learn deeper about the book Sunan al-Tirmizi, whether the chain or text, or even jurisprudential matters. Died in the year 1353H.

[151]            Tuhfah al-Ahwazi Syarh Jami’ al-Tirmizi, vol 2, pg 159.

[152]            Sound: Hadith mutawatir recorded by Ahmad, Abu Daud, Ibn Majah and others, judged sound by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Sahih Sunan Abu Daud – no: 871. (Kitab Solat, Bab Apa yang dikatakan oleh seseorang dalam rukuk dan sujud). In some other ahadith, Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam mentions as he mentioned the above, with the addition wa bihamdih.

[153]            Sound: Hadith from ‘A‘isyah radiallahu ‘anha, recorded by Abu Uwanah, Muslim and al-Nasai, see Sahih Muslim – no: 485. (Kitab Solat, Bab Apa yang disebut dalam rukuk dan sujud).

[154]            To learn about some forms of readings and zikr in prayers that are authentically from Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam, refer to the book Sifat Solat Nabi by Nasr al-Din al-Albani. This book has been translated to Malay, Indonesia and English, distributed by some publishers; also can be gotten from the web. See also Koreksi Total Ritual Shalat by Abu Ubaidah Masyhurah.

[155]            Sound: Hadith from ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar dan Abu Hurairah radiallahu ‘anhu, recorded by Ahmad, al-Darimi, Abu Daud, al-Tirmizi, Ibn Majah, Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Hibban, al-Hakim, al-Baihaqi and others, judged sound by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Sahih Sunan Abu Daud – no: 1634 (Kitab Zakat, Bab yang berhak menerima zakat dan batas kekayaan).

[156]            Sound chain: Hadith from ‘Ali bin Abi Talib radiallahu ‘anhu, recorded by Malik, Ahmad, Abu Daud, Ibn Khuzaimah, al-Baihaqi, Abu Ya’la and al-Thabarani, the chain judged sound by Ahmad Syakir in Musnad Ahmad – no: 1730. (Musnad Ahli Bait, Hadathana Husain bin ‘Ali radiallahu ‘anhu). In this there is a further dicussion, compare it to the explanation given by Mustafa Azami in his revision of Sahih Ibn Khuzaimah – no: 2468 and Husain Salim Asad in Musnad Abu Ya’la – no: 6784.

[157]            Sound: Hadith from Zubair bin Awam radiallahu ‘anhu, recorded by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, Ibn Majah and others, see Sahih al-Bukhari – no:1471 (Kitab Zakat, Bab ke-50).

[158]            Good: Hadith from ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abbas radiallahu ‘anhu, recorded by Ibn Jarir dan al-Baihaqi (Shu‘abu al-Iman),quoted by al-Munziri in al-Targhib wa al-Tarhib – no: 1178 & 1179 (Kitab Sedekah, Bab Ancaman dari bersifat tamak dalam meminta-minta ......) and judged good by Samir Ahmad al-‘Atar and his friends.

[159]            Good: Hadith from ‘Ali bin Abi Talib radiallahu ‘anhu, recorded by ‘Abd Allah bin Ahmad (Ziyadatul Musnad) and al-Thabarani (al-Mu’jam al-Ausath), quoted by al-Munziri in al-Targhib wa al-Tarhib – no: 1188. (Kitab Sedekah, Bab Ancaman dari bersifat tamak dalam meminta-minta ......) and judged good by Samir Ahmad al-‘Atar and friends.

[160]            Sound: Hadith from ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar radiallahu ‘anhuma, narrated by al-Bukhari and Muslim, see Sahih Muslim – no: 1040. (Kitab Zakat, Bab Larangan meminta-minta dari manusia).

[161]            Further see the explanation by Syamsul Haq Abadi in Aun al-Ma’bud Syarh Sunan Abu Daud, vol 5, pg 63.

[162]            Sound: Hadith recorded by Muslim, Abu Daud, al-Nasa’i and others, see Sahih Muslim – no: 1044. (Kitab Zakat, Bab Siapa yang dibolehkan dalam masalah meminta sedekah).

[163]            Sound: Part of a longer hadith by Usama bin Zaid radiallahu ‘anhu, recorded by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, Muslim and others, see Sahih Muslim – no: 2736. (Kitab Raqa‘iq, Bab Kebanyakan Ahli Syurga adalah…….).

[164]            Sound: Part of a lengthier hadith by Abu Hurairah radiallahu ‘anhu, recorded by al-Bukhari, Ibn Majah and others, see Sahih al-Bukhari – no: 6435 (Kitab Raqa‘iq, Bab Mengelak dari fitnah harta).

[165]            Sound: Hadith from Ka‘ab bin Iyadh radiallahu ‘anhu, recorded by Ahmad, al-Bukhari (al-Tarikh al-Kabir), al-Tirmizi, Ibn Hibban and others, quoted and judged sound by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Silsilah Hadis Sahih – no: 592.

[166]            Sound: Hadith from Ka‘ab bin Malik radiallahu ‘anhu, recorded by Ahmad dan al-Tirmizi, quoted by al-Suyuti in al-Jami’ al-Sagheir – no: 7908 and judged sound by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Sahih al-Jami’ al-Sagheir – no: 5620.

[167]            Sound: Hadith from Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri and Ubadah bin Saamit radiallahu ‘anhuma, recorded by Abad bin Hamid (1002), Ibn Majah (4125), al-Thabarani (in al-Du‘a, quoted by al-Haithami in Majma’ al-Zawa‘id – no: 17906 and al-Ajluni in Kasyfu al-Khafa’ – no: 538), al-Hakim (7911), al-Baihaqi (12930), al-Khatib (Tarikh al-Baghdad – no: 2086) and others; quoted by al-Munziri (al-Targhib wa al-Tarhib – no: 4665 & 4666), al-Maqdisi (Ahadith al-Mukhtarah, vol 8, pg 270-271) and al-Suyuti (al-Jami’ al-Sagheir – no: 1454 & 1554).

This hadith is judged sound by Nasr al-Din al-Albani because of several chains that strengthen each other, see Silsilah Hadis Sahih – no: 308 and Irwa’ al-Ghaleel – no: 861. While Muhyiddin Dibb Mastu, Samir Ahmad ‘Atha & Yusuf ‘Ali Badiwi judged it good in their revision of the book al-Targhib wa al-Tarhib, vol 4, pg 43-44, also based on several chains that strengthen each other.

Ibn al-Jauzi opined that the hadith is fabricated (al-Maudhu‘ath, vol 3, pg 141) but is disputed by Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani (al-Munawi – Faidh al-Qadir Syarh al-Jami’ al-Sagheir, vol 2, pg 102-103).

al-Tirmizi in Sunan al-Tirmizi – no: 2457 and al-Baihaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra – no: 13152 & Syu‘abu al-Iman – no: 1453 & 1050 produced the same narration from Anas bin Malik radiallahu ‘anhu, with an additional question by ‘A‘isyah radiallahu ‘anha: Why O’ Rasulullah ? Rasulullah answered: Verily they are allowed into the Paradise before the wealthy people with a difference of 40 years. O ‘A‘isyah, do not reject the poor even with half a date. O ‘A‘isyah, ease the poorand befriend them, so that Allah will make you close to Him in the Day of Judgement. Abu Isa al-Tirmizi said, this hadith is gharib. Hadith with the above addition is weak because one of its narrators is al-Harith bin al-Nu’man. See al-Mubarakfuri – Tuhfat al-Ahwazi Syarh Jami’ al-Tirmizi, vol 7, pg 18, al-Albani – Irwa’ ul-Ghaleel, vol 3, pg 359 and ‘Abd al-’Ali ‘Abd al-Hamid – Jamii’ li-Syu‘abu al-Iman – no: 1380.

[168]            Weak: Hadith recorded by Ahmad (24724), al-Bazzar (3/209), al-Thabarani (al-Mu’jam al-Kabir – no: 264 & 5407) and Abu Nu‘aim (Hilyah al-Auliya’ – no: 311), everyone of them from ‘Umarah bin Zazan, verily he is disputed by the critics of chain: accepted by some, rejected by the others. See al-Dhu‘afa’ wa al-Matrukin li Ibn al-Jauzi – narrator no: 2432, Mizan al-Iktidal – narrator no: 6030 and al-Kamil fi Dhu‘afa’ al-Rijal – narrator no: 1257.

Ibn al-Jauzi has included this hadith in the list of his fabricated hadith in al-Maudhu’ath but Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani in al-Qaulu al-Musaddid, pg 41-43 (hadith no: 6) has succeeded in releasing this hadith from that position. al-Hafiz al-Munziri in al-Targhib wa al-Tarhib, vol 4, pg 41-42 said, this hadith still is very far from good because of its meaning, because it is known that the wealth managed by Ibn Auf (the way of procurement and spending) satisfies the saying of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam which means: The best permissible wealth is the wealth owned by good people. [See Hadith I]. al-Dzahabi quoted this narration in Siyar A’lam al-Nubala, vol 1, pg 76 and Syu‘aib al-Arna’uth said: the chain is weak.

Hamzah Ahmad Zain in his revision on Musnad Ahmad, vol 17, pg 443 opines that the hadith can be upgraded to the level good because its meaning satisfies some other ahadith from the Prophet who explains that the wealthy will be stopped from being able to enter the Paradise directly due to the counting on their wealth (Hadith A). He added, this hadith in no way means that Ibn Auf will not enter the Paradise, instead it only tells us that he will be stopped for a while for his wealth to be counted and cleared.

We are in the opinion that Hadith A only serves to remind us to be aware of our wealth, how it is attained and by which means are they spent. A rich and wealthy man will not be automatically delayed his entry to the Paradise, neither will the poor be admitted to the Paradise automatically merely because of the scanty amount of their wealth. Instead if a person procures his wealth from permissible means and spent it in ways recognized by Allah apart from spending much in charity, the wealth will itself help the person to enter the Paradise even more quickly, earlier than a poor might be. It is worth reminding that the judgement of Allah on our wealth is unlike the calculations made by accountants on a millionaire’s wealth, where the more wealth he has, the more time it needs to be audited.

Ibn al-Jauzi wrote in Talbis al-Iblis, pg 313-314: Then, it cannot be rationally accepted that there exist amongst the companions a person who would voice his worry on the person of ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Auf because of his wealth. Is there not a consensus among the ulama’ that clearly and truthfully affirmed the permissibility of saving wealth from permissible means? If so, what is the use and motive of the worry or concern when it in itself is permissible? Can the jurisprudence allow something and then judge it as wrong when someone does it? This can be from nothing else but the misunderstanding and the lack of Islamic knowledge of the person who said these.

And why has this been ascribed and depeneded on to ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Auf only, when other companions are as rich as he was? There was this companion by the name of Thalhah who left his wealth of 300 bahar when one bahar is as much as a camel load. The wealth of al-Zubair upon his death was 700,000, Ibn Mas‘ud was 90,000 and most companions procured a lot of wealth and left them (upon their death) while nobody admonished them.

Concerning their claim that ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Auf will crawl in the Day of Judgment, this indeed only shows their lack of understanding on the meaning of the hadith. Isn’t in only a dream, and not in reality? I seek refuge in Allah from believing that ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Auf will crawl in the Day of Judgment! Let us contemplate deep on this! Who can preceed him if ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Auf will crawl, when he is one of the 10 companions being promised and guaranteed Paradise, also he is among the people of Badr and is among the people of Paradise? And this hadith is narrated by ‘Umarah bin Zazan whereupon Imam al-Bukhari said: there is inconsistency in it. Imam Ahmad said: he has narrated folly ahadith. Abu Hatim al-Razi said: There can be no excuse. And al-Daruquthni said: This hadith is weak.

Ibn al-Qayyim, after a lengthy discussion on this hadith in his book Sabar: Perisai Seorang Mukmin, pg 196-201 makes the conclusion: Concerning the hadith on how ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Auf entered the Paradise crawling, its matter is as how Imam Ahmad rahimahullah judged it, that this hadith is not only untrue but also corrupt. Or in other words, as said by al-Nasai, this hadith is fabricated. The degrees (greatness, piety, and virtue– P) of ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Auf, his struggle, his giving in charity which is incomparable and his spending in the path of Allah will take him into the Paradise together with those who enter as fast as the flash, or in the blink of an eye, or as is riding a horse, and it is not befitting him to be entering the Paradise crawling.

If we want to be conclusively say that the wealthy and rich people will be delayed entrance to the Paradise solely based on their wealth, can we conversely say that the less fortunate will be able to enter the Paradise quickly merely because they have less wealth? We say no, because a poor may not have to undergo as much count on their wealth but he will still be assessed from his other wrongdoings. If the wrongdoings of a poor is more or greater than the wrongdoings of a rich, God-fearing and good man, it is likely that the poor will have to enter the Paradise crawiling. Indeed if his state is deliberately made to put the burden on the nation and his community, not only that he will be delayed entrance into the Paradise, he will be punished for that. In short, Allah’s assessment in the Day of Judgment is dependent on many factors and not only confined to the amount of wealth a man has. Therefore we do not agree with the explanation brought by Shaikh Ahmad Hamzah Zain that this hadith can be upgraded to the level good because of its truth in its meaning. It may be true if the meaning is general but it is corrupt and untrue if it is pointed to ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Auf radiallahu ‘anhu.

Therefore we are in the opinion that this hadith is weak and batil. In it is contained some disparity and filth, which are:

[1] In the chain, there is a disputed narrator,

[2] The text is against Allah Ta‘ala’s general justice in the Day of Judgement and

[3] The text contains slander to one of the purest companions.

Based on these 3 factors, we advocate that this hadith must not be spread to other people even on the basis of encouragement and as a reminder (al-Targhib wa al-Tarhib), unless if it is to make plain its weaknesses and to correct people’s perception that has long been damaged by it.

[169]            Sound: Hadith from ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘ud radiallahu ‘anhu, see Sahih Muslim – no: 2721. (Kitab Zikir, dan doa, taubat dan istighfar, Bab Meminta perlindungan dari sesuatu yang dilakukan……..).

[170]            Sound: An excerpt of a longer hadith by Sa‘ad bin Abi Waqqas radiallahu ‘anhu, see Sahih Muslim – no: 1628. (Kitab Wasiat, Bab Wasiat adalah satu pertiga…..).

[171]            Sound Chain: A part of a lengthier hadith by ‘Amr al-Ash radiallahu ‘anhu, recorded by Ahmad, al-Bukhari (al-Adab al-Mufrad) and Abu Ya’la, its chain judged sound by Husain Salim Asad in his revision on Musnad Abu Ya’la – no:7336 (Musnad ‘Amr bin al-‘Ash, hadis pertama).

[172]            Good: Hadith from Abu Hurairah radiallahu ‘anhu, recorded by al-Thabarani in al-Mu’jam al-Ausath – no: 8312, the revisor said– M. Hasan Ismail: its chain is very weak. We say, its meaning is strengthened by a few other arguments, among them being the words of Allah Subhanahu waTa‘ala:

He who emigrates (from his home) in the Cause of Allâh, will find on earth many dwelling places and plenty to live by. [al-Nisaa’ 4:100]

And also the following verse:

He knows that there will be some among you sick, others travelling through the land, seeking of Allâh’s Bounty, yet others fighting in Allâh’s Cause.. [al-Muzammil 73:20]

And the saying of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam about a man who has recently died at his hometown in Medina:

إن الرجل إذا مات في غير مولده, قيس له من مولده إلى منقطع أثره في الجنة.

Verily when a man dies at a place other than his birth place, it will be measured (the distance) between his birthplace to his deathplace a space for him in the Paradise. [Good chain: A summarise hadith from ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Amr radiallahu ‘anhu, recorded by Ahmad, al-Nasai, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban and others, its chain judged good by Syu‘aib al-Arna’uth in his revision on Sahih Ibn Hibban – no: 2934 (Kitab Jenazah, Bab Tentang Sabar dan ganjaran apabila kesakitan).

                The verses of the Qur’an together with the hadith as above they all explain on the virtue of emigration and traveling because of and for the bounty of Allah Subhanahu waTa‘ala. Based on these guidances from the verses of al-Qur’an and hadith, we are in the opinion that the hadith of Abu Hurairah as above can be upgraded to the level good, that is its chain is weak but its text is truthful. Allah alone knows best.

[173]            Good: Hadith from Anas bin Malik radiallahu ‘anhu, recorded by Ahmad bin Mani’, Abu Nu‘aim, Ibn al-Sakun, al-Baihaqi (Syu‘abu al-Iman) and Ibn ‘Adiy, quoted and rated weak by al-Ajluni in Kasyfu al-Khafa’ – no: 1917. This hadith is also discussed by al-Munawi in Faidh al-Qadir Syarh Jamii’ al-Sagheir – no: 6199 and he quoted the words of al-Syakhawi that all the various chains of this hadith are weak. However al-Zarkasyi is in the opinion that this hadith is strengthened by another hadith which relate destitution and infidelity, i.e. the hadith by Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri radiallahu ‘anhu that Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam has said in his prayer:

اللهم إني أعوذ بك من الفقر والكفر. فقال رجل: ويعتدلان ؟ قال: نعم.

“O’ Allah ! Verily I seek refuge in you from infidelity and destitution.” A man asked Rasulullah: “O’ Rasulullah ! Are the two equal?” Rasulullah answered: “Yes.” [Hasan: Recorded by al-Nasa’i and Ibn Hibban, its chain judged weak by Syu‘aib al-Arna’uth in his revision on Sahih Ibn Hibban – no: 1026. We rate it good based on another hadith from Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam which also relates and equates infidelity and destitution, i.e.:

اللهم إني أعوذ بك من العجز والكسل، والجبن والبخل والهرم، والقسوة والغفلة، والعيلة والذلة والمسكنة، وأعوذ بك من الفقر، والكفر والفسوق، والشقاق والنفاق، والسمعة والرياء، وأعوذ بك من الصمم والبكم، والجنون والجذام والبرص، وسيء الأسقام.

O’ Allah ! Verily I seek refuge in you from weakness, indolence, cowardice, stinginess, old age, hard-hearted, forgetful, wanting, contempt and destitution. And I seek refuge in you from destitution and infidelity, wrong-doing, quarrels, hypocrisy, arrogane and self-satisfied. And I seek refuge in you from deaf, dumb, absent-mindedness, leprosy and bad diseases.

Sound: Recorded by al-Hakim and al-Baihaqi (Kitab al-Doa) from Anas bin Malik radiallahu ‘anhu, quoted and rated sound by al-Suyuti in al-Jami’ al-Sagheir – no: 1489 and agreed by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Sahih al-Jami’ al-Sagheir – no: 1285]

[174]            It is part of the ahadith in the category of al-Targhib wa al-Tarhib, i.e. the ahadith which aims to give encouragement on doing something good and admonishing the bad acts and deeds. The ahadith of this category should not be taken too literally or on it’s face value, instead we have to concentrate from the point of encouragement and admonition it offers. Among the hadith that is from this category is the hadith that encourages and promote the supererogatory prayer of Sunah Fajar 2 rakaah, i.e. the Qabliyah Subuh prayer upon which Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said:

ركعتا الفجر خير من الدنيا وما فيها.

                The two rakaah on fajr is better than the world and whatever that is in it. [Sound: Recorded by Muslim, al-Tirmizi, al-Nasa’i and others, quted by al-Suyuti in al-Jami’ al-Sagheir – no: 4465]

                This hadith only seeks to highlight the greatness of the virtues of the two rakaah prayer before the obligatory Fajr prayer, it can never mean that those who perform it in the early morning has definitely accomplished a great task until that he does not need to work on that day anymore. So is the case for hadith A as above, as is discussed now, it only serves to convey the advice and admonition on how a man should endeavour to earn and procure wealth, not to establish wealth as a hurdle to entering the Paradise.

[175]            Sound: Hadith from Sa‘id bin Abi Waqash radiallahu ‘anhu, recorded by Ahmad dan Muslim, see Sahih Muslim – no: 2965 (Kitab Zuhud dan Raqa‘iq).

[176]            Sound: A part of a longer hadith by ‘A‘isyah radiallahu ‘anha, see Sahih al-Bukhari – no: 6368. (Kitab Doa, Bab Meminta perlindungan Allah dari semua dosa dan hutang).

[177]            Sound: Recorded by al-Hakim and al-Baihaqi (Kitab al-Doa) from Anas bin Malik radiallahu ‘anhu, quoted and rated sound by al-Suyuti in al-Jami’ al-Sagheir – no: 1489 and agreed by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Sahih al-Jami’ al-Sagheir – no: 1285. We have copied the full text of this supplication in the previous footnote.

[178]            Ibn Qutaibah – Ta’wil Mukhtalaf al-Hadith, pg 112-113.

[179]            There are 3 prominent figures by the name Ibn Athir, all of them are siblings:

[1]           Abu al-Sadat Mubarak bin Abi al-Karim, he is the author of al-Nihayah fi Gharib al-Hadith wa al-Athar. This 5 volume book specifically discuss the words that existed and was used in the time of the Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam but has altered in meaning, wording and usage at a later time, in line with the growth of culture and civilisation. Among his other works are Jamii’ al-Usul fi Ahadith al-Rasul in which all the ahadith of Rasulullah that makes the foundation of Islam is collected and another book which is an exegesis to Musnad al-Shafi‘i. He died in the year 606H.

[2]           Izz al-Din Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali bin Abi al-Karim, a well known historian in his time. Among his famous work is al-Kamil fi Tarikh and Usad al-Ghabah fi Ma’refah al-Sahabah. Died in the year 630H.

[3]           Abu al-Fath Nasr Allah bin Abi al-Karim, well-known as an artist. Among his best works is al-Mithal al-Sa‘ir fi Adab al-Katib wa al-Sya‘ir. Died in 637H.

[180]            An-Nihayah fi Gharib al-Hadith wa al-Athar, vol 2, pg 346.

[181]            He is al-Hafiz Imam ‘Abd al-Rauf bin Taj al-Din al-Munawi al-Qahiry, born in 952H and died in 1031H in Egypt. He is a well known scholar of hadith in his time, and among his celebrated work is Faidh al-Qadir which is an explanation on the book al-Jami’ al-Sagheir by al-Suyuti (911H). Besides that he also compiled another book which is a shorter version of al-Jami’ al-Sagheir, entitled al-Taysir al-Jami’ al-Sagheir. His other works are Najirah al-Fikri dan al-Yawaqiit wa al-Durar, both concern the hadith, discussion on Nukhbah al-Fikri by Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani (852H).  

[182]            He is Shaikh Isma‘il bin Muhammad al-Ajluni al-Dimasqy. His work Kasyfu al-Khafa wa Muzil al-Ilbas ‘amma Isytahara min Ahadith ‘ala Alsinah al-Nas is a summary of a book written by al-Syakhowi (905H) entitled Maqasid al-Hasanah fi Bayan Katsir min Ahadith al-Musytahirah ‘ala al-Alsinah. It collects the well-known ahadith that spread on the street, adding explanations on the status of each hadith (sound, weak, fabricated) followed by its actual meaning to correct the lay understanding on these ahadith.

[183]            He is al-Imam Shaikh al-Islam Zakariya ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad, also known as Zakariya Ansari, a memorizer in hadith and master of juridicial and the knowledge of al-Qur‘an. Also known as the Shaikh of the Shuyukh because many of his students later become shuyukh themselves. He was born in 823H in Sanika, Egypt and died in 926H.  

[184]            al-Munawi – Faidh al-Qadir Syarh al-Jami’ al-Sagheir, vol 2, pg 102 and al-Ajluni – Kasyfu al-Khafa, vol 1, pg 163-164.

[185]            He is Imam Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Ali ibn Muhammad al-Jauzi, a great scholar of hadith and other fields. His work exceeds 300 books in various religious subjects and specialties. Died in 597H. Among his famous and beneficial work is Talbis Iblis, a book specifically focuses to explore the means from which Iblis disturbs and influences the muslims.

This work has been completely translated by Syed Ahmad Semait with the title Belitan Iblis (Pustaka Islamiyah, Singapura). However there was a mistake on the author it was ascribed to. It was taken that Ibn al-Qayyim was its author, when in truth it is Ibn al-Jauzi. We do not know if this mistake is due to the translator’s weakness or its publisher from Middle East. This is not the first of its case because Nuh Ha Min Keller made a statement on this issue in Reliance of the Traveller, pg 1021 when making note of Ibn al-Jauzi’s biography, many people has mistakenly taken Ibn Jawzi for Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, especially when the reference al-Jawziyya was taken as Jauzi until eventually the name Ibn al-Jauzi was termed. However, as far as we have read, this attributional mistake has not in any way undermine or invalidate the content of the book when compared to the original Arabic adition. There is another edition translated by Kathur Suhardi by the title Perangkap Syaitan (Pustaka al-Kautsar, Jakarta). This one is not a full translation but also a summary, where the book is abridged to avoid putting unnecessary burden on the lay readers.

[186]            Ibn al-Jauzi – Belitan Iblis, pg 310-316, we did not quote this in a continuous fashion.

[187]            Good: Hadith from Abu Hurairah radiallahu ‘anhu, recorded by Ahmad dan Ibn Majah, quoted and rated good by al-Suyuti in al-Jami’ al-Sagheir – no: 8119 and agreed so by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in his Sahih al-Jami’ al-Sagheir – no: 5808.

[188]            Military activities in Islam is not known as territorial conquer or colonialism but as al-Fath, that is freeing or opening. The difference between conquering and opening is that conquering involves taking the land and all that is in it, confiscating the wealth, enslaving the people, imposing one’s own culture and various other forms. An opening is an act of cleansing a land from the atmosphere of ignorance to the atmosphere of knowledge and from taking deities to serving Allah Azza wa Jalla alone. The people of the land will be introduced to Islam without any force or coercion for it to be embraced, the land’s productivitiy still goes to its people, as long as jizyah (a small sum of protection money) is paid while the local culture and civility will not be disturbed unless they have traces or stains of deity.

[189]            Among the most interesting discussions in this chapter; between the richness and poorness of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam is as was presented by Ibn al-Qayyim in his book Sabar: Perisai seorang Mukmin (Pustaka Azzam, Jakarta). Everyone is encouraged to read it.

[190]            Among others, see Ibn al-Qayyim – Madarij al-Salikin, pg 147-152 and Ibn Qudamah – Minhaj al-Qasidin, pg 421.

[191]            Muhammad Wafaa – Metode Tarjih, pg 179-188.

[192]            Sound: Hadith from Busrah binti Shafwan radiallahu ‘anha, recorded by ‘Abd al-Razzaq, Ibn Abi Syaibah, Abu Daud, Ibn Hibban and others, rated sound by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Sahih Sunan Abu Daud – no: 181. (Kitab Taharah, Bab Wudhu kerana menyentuh zakar).

[193]            Sound: Hadith recorded by Abu Daud, al-Tirmizi, Ibn Hibban, al-Baihaqi and others, rated sound by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Sahih Sunan Abu Daud – no: 182. (Kitab Taharah, Bab Kemudahan dalam hal sedemikian (yakni dalam bab menyentuh zakar).

[194]            Good chain: recorded by Ibn Hibban in Sahih Ibn Hibban – no: 1121. Syu‘aib al-Arna’uth opined that the chain is strong.

[195]            Sound: Hadis from Nu’man bin Basyir radiallahu ‘anhu, recorded by al-Bukhari, Muslim and others, see Hadis 40 Imam Nawawi, hadith no: 06.

[196]            Some of the masters of jurisprudence have proposed other explanations in resolving the contradiction between Hadith A and B:

First:

                Based on tarjih, when two authentic tradition oppose each other, the first supported by a number of undisputable chain of narrations while the second is backed by a little less than the first, or is not supported as much, then it is recommended to prefer the hadith with more and stronger support, clearly because it is better incontestable. Between the two narrations above, Hadith A is supported and rated sahih by more Hadith experts as compared to Hadith B. [Subul al-Salam, vol 1, pg 174-178]

Second:

                Based on tarjih, when two statements are contradictory, the first maintains the default ruling/status (bara‘ah asliyah) while the second drops the ruling, it is recommended to prefer the hadith that maintains it to the one that drops it. This is because the default status of any matter is harus in shari‘ah. However in this method there is a second opinion, that the hadith that drops the ruling has to be prefered to the one that preserves it, because the one that drops the ruling plays the role of giving a new rule. For both the methods, the Hadith B is the maintaining hadith while the one that drops the ruling is Hadith A. [Muhammad Wafaa – Metode Tarjih, pg 249-252]

Third:

Based on the rule of nasikh dan mansukh, Hadith B was abrogated by a hadith from Abu Hurairah radiallahu ‘anhu which meant: Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said: When a man from you places his hand on his penis without any cover (cloth), ablution is obligatory for him. Because Abu Hurairah is a junior companion who embraced Islam round about 4 years before the demise of the Prophet, it is generally accepted that this hadith by Abu Hurairah is one of the latest, abrogating the earlier hadith by Talaq bin ‘Ali (Hadith B). Unfortunately this opinion has to be dismissed because the hadith by Abu Hurairah is a weak hadith as judged by Ahmad Muhammad Syakir in Musnad Ahmad – no: 8385. Moreover Abu Hurairah narrated this hadith with the words ‘an Nabi which means from the Prophet and not with the words Sami’tu Nabi qala....... which would mean I heard the Prophet said....... which shows that there is a possibility that he received it from the Prophet or from any other senior companions. But if he had said I heard the Prophet said...... will most probably definitely mean that he heard it directly from the Prophet, without any intermediaries. For this reason we are not inclined towards this third method to resolving the contradictions betwen the two narrations.

[197]            Sound: A translated hadith from Umm Habibah radiallahu ‘anha, recorded by al-Taylisi, Ahmad and Ibn Majah, rated sound by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Irwa al-Ghaleel – no: 117.

[198]            Sound: Part of a longer hadith, recorded by Ibn Jarud, Muslim, Ibn Khuzaimah and others, see Sahih Muslim – no: 273. (Kitab Taharah, Bab Menyapu di atas kasut)

[199]            Sound: Hadith recorded by Ahmad, al-Tirmizi, Ibn Majah and others, rated sound by Nasr al-Din al-Albani in Sahih Sunan al-Tirmizi – no: 012. (Kitab Taharah, Bab Tentang larangan kecing berdiri).

[200]            Sound chain: Hadith from Buraidah radiallahu ‘anhu, recorded by al-Tabarani in al-Mu’jam al-Ausath – no: 5998 (Bab Nama-nama yang bermula dengan Muhammad, haddathana Muhammad bin al-Hasan bin Makrum...........) and its chain rated sound by the examiner: Mahmud Hasan Ismail. Also recorded by al-Bazzar and quoted by al-Haithami in Majma’ al-Zawa‘id, vol 2, pg 83, no 2454 with a slightly different text. al-Haithami said: the narrators of al-Bazzar are all narrators of sound hadith.

[201]            Good: Hadith recorded by al-Tirmizi (012), Ibn Majah (308), Abi Uwanah (5898), al-Baihaqi (493), al-Hakim (661) and Ibn Hibban (1423), above as in the text of al-Tirmizi, all of them through the narrator Ibn Juraij, from Nafi’, from Ibn ‘Umar, from ‘Umar al-Khattab that.........

The chain has two weaknesses:

[1] Ibn Juraij, he didn’t seem to be explicitly clear in explaining the chain of transmitters from whom he received this hadith. At one time he says: ‘an Nafi’...., at another: ‘an ‘Abd al-Karim bin Abi al-Mukharij, ‘an Nafi’......and at other times he said: akhbarani ‘Abd al-Karim bin Abi al-Mukharij, ‘an Nafi’...... The truth is, he did not receive it directly from Nafi’, but from ‘Abd al-Karim.

[2] ‘Abd al-Karim bin Abi al-Mukharij, he is weak, from the hadith critics’ point of view. This is as explained by al-Tirmizi himself in Sunan al-Tirmizi, vol 1, pg 15-16 and al-Baihaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra, vol 1, pg 165. al-Bushairi said: this chain is weak, everyone agrees that ‘Abd al-Karim is weak and he is alone in this narration, and furthermore this is in opposition with another narration from ‘Ubaidullah bin ‘Amr al-‘Amri (Misbah al-Zujajah, vol 1, pg 45). Further about ‘Abd al-Karim, see Ibn ‘Adiy – al-Kamil fi Dhu‘afa’ al Rijal – perawi no: 1496.

                See the explanations given by Nasr al-Din al-Albani – Silsilah Hadis Daif wa Maudhu’ – no: 934  and Syu‘aib al-Arna’uth – Sahih Ibn Hibban, vol 4, pg 271-272 (takhrij of hadith no: 1423). Also ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Arna’uth and Syu‘aib al-Arna’uth in Zaad al-Ma‘ad , vol 1, pg 189.

                However, we are in the opinion that, even with these weaknesses, the text itself bears some truth as supported by the other hadith in this chapter, mainly the statement of ‘Umar which follows this hadith: From then on I’ve never passed water while standing. Concerning al-Bushairi’s statement that this hadith is inconsistent with ‘Umar al-Khattab’s words, we say, this inconsistency can be resolved with the understanding that this incident happened in the early days of ‘Umar embracing Islam. After that he never relieved himself while standing. It could be that the whole of this hadith took place in the early days of ‘Umar’s acceptance into Islam.

See also the hadith of Buraidah which precedes this hadith. Therefore we opine that this hadith can be upgraded to the level good, insha-Allah.

[202]            Sound: This additional text is recorded by Ibn Abi Syaibah (1324), al-Bazzar (149), al-Tirmizi (012) and others from a different chain, quoted by al-Haithami in Majma al-Zawaa‘id – no: 1015 and said he, the narrators are thiqah. al-Hindi quoted it in Kanz al-‘Ummal – no: 35745 and he rated it sound.